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P©nii|i?iili  Sociotj 

I   ! 







Piaiijlftaia  SoeUty 





OPFICEBS   FOR  1875. 










EDWAED  HOPPEE,  Philadelphia. 
JOSEPH  E.  EIIOADS,       " 
JOSEPH  J.  LEWIS,  Chester. 
















The  "  Pennsylvania  Society  for  Promoting  the  Abolition  of  Slavery, 
the  Relief  of  Free  Negroes  Unlawfully  Held  in  Bondage,  and  for  Impro- 
ving the  Condition  of  the  African  Race,"  celebrated  its  Centennial  Anni- 
versary at  Concert  Hall,  in  Philadelphia,  Wednesday,  April  14th,  1875. 
The  organization  is  the  oldest  and  most  efficient  of  all  that  rallied  around 
the  same  humane  cause,  but  has  received  less  recognition  than  others  that 
accomplished  no  tithe  of  its  work. 

The  history  of  the  Society  touches  that  of  the  Western  Continent.  Spain 
enslaved  and  exported  Indians  here  as  early  as  1495.  The  difficulty  of 
procuring  Indians  and  the  need  for  labor  induced  the  Spaniards  to  import 
negroes  to  the  New  World  soon  after.  The  Emperor  Charles  V.  licensed 
a  Fleming  to  ship  negroes  to  the  West  Indies.  Other  European  nations 
imitated  this  conduct,  and  slavery  was  naturalized.  Before  1776  more 
than  300,000  negroes  arrived.  The  Continental  Congress  forbade  the 
importation  to  the  United  States  in  1776,  but  Congress  was  forbidden  by 
the  Constitution  to  stop  the  trade  before  1808,  although  Washington,  Ham- 
ilton, Jefferson,  Jay,  Franklin,  Madison  and  many  of  their  great  cotem- 
poraries  saw  its  conflict  with  the  Declaration  and  opposed  its  tolerance. 
They  hoped,  however,  that  an  institution  so  foreign  to  the  genius  of  the 
land,  to  Christianity,  education,  civilization  and  industry  would  die 
from  its  own  baseness,  and  shrank  from  awakening  sectional  feeling  and 
interfering  with  business  interests.  They  even  conceded  to  the  South  some 
advantages  for  preserving  the  system,  under  a  conviction  that  it  must  die 
there  as  it  had  died  at  the  North.  The  politicians  and  merchants  were 
foremost  in  this  compromise  between  right  and  wrong,  and  the  mass  of 
the  people  were  not  unwilling  abettors.  The  old  Abolition  Society  did 
not  participate  in  this  dangerous  and  costly  blunder.  They  were  saga- 
cious, principled  and  humane  men.     Revolting  from  an  inhumanity  so 


gross,  inexcusable  and  dangerous,  they  associated  to  effect  by  concert  what 
they  dared  not  attempt  individually  :  proclaimed  their  intent  and  under- 
took what  none  lived  to  see  realized. 

One  of  the  first  important  steps  of  the  Society  was  the  last  important 
public  act  of  Benjamin  Franklin.  He  as  President  signed  a  Memorial 
addressed  by  the  Society  to  Congress  in  1790,  asking  that  body  "  to  devise 
means  for  removing  the  inconsistency  of  slavery  from  the  American  peo- 
ple," and  "  to  step  to  the  very  verge  of  its  power  for  discouraging  every 
species  of  traffic  in  the  persons  of  our  fellow-men."  The  history  of  the 
doings  of  this  old  Abolition  Society  is  unwritten ;  and  they  are  so  involved 
in  all  that  was  attempted  and  done  by  either  political  party  to  render  the 
land  free  in  fact  as  in  name,  and  in  all  the  vexed  questions  of  a  century, 
that  they  can  hardly  ever  be  dissociated.  But  the  individuals  who  adhered 
to  the  truth,  and  defended  the  common  cause  of  government,  of  constitu- 
tional law,  of  human  rights  and  national  well-being  in  hopeless  days,  and 
by  this  devotion  bred  the  sense  that  finally  won  their  wishes — these  indi- 
viduals will  be  loved  for  their  truth  and  honored  for  their  conduct  always. 
They  were  crushed,  and  even  hope  itself  seemed  lost  when  the  Fugitive 
Slave  Law  enacted  more  than  ever  had  been  conceded,  and  carried  the  slave- 
master  under  the  escort  of  civil  power,  with  a  right  to  demand  military 
assistance,  into  every  free  State.  Still  they  believed  that  Eight  lived  "  the 
eternal  years  of  God,"  and  were  undismayed  by  the  momentary  defeat  and 
stimulated  to  greater  effort.  Despite  growing  obloquy  not  unattended  by 
personal  danger  and  loss  of  property,  they  retained  their  faith  and  con- 
tinued their  labors  ;  they  ameliorated  the  condition  of  some  and  succored 
the  wants  of  others,  enslaved  or  fugitive ;  reunited  families  that  had  es- 
caped and  placed  them  in  safety ;  and  when  the  old  members  were  gath- 
ered to  the  majority,  full  of  years  and  full  of  honors,  confident  of  their  re- 
ward, their  children  filled  their  places  as  worthily  and  enlisted  others, — 
among  them  those  who  now  exult  in  the  fruition  of  a  hope  so  long  delayed — 
the  attainment  of  a  purpose  so  necessary  for  the  nation  and  human  progress. 

The  first  object  of  the  Society  has  been  realized.  On  all  the  continent 
no  slave  now  draws  breath ;  and  those  who  remain  enslaved  on  its  adjacent 
islands  can  foresee  the  date  of  their  final  emancipation.  The  Society  is 
now  remitted  to  its  second  purpose — the  improvement  of  the  condition  of 
the  African  race ;  a  labor  as  great  perhaps  as  its  predecessor, — certainly 
as  important  to  the  nation,  the  race  and  the  world ;  and  that  is  to  be  pro- 
secuted steadily,  against  many  discouragements  as  well  as  under  many  en- 
couragements, until  the  whole  end  of  the  early  organization  has  been  ful- 
filled in  every  detail  and  to  the  spirit  as  well  as  to  the  letter. 


The  following  is  the  Programme  of  Exercises,  as  issued  by  the  Committee. 






On   Wednesday  Afternoon,  April  14th,  1875, 
at  2i  o'clock,  p.  m. 




Hon.  Henry  Wilson,  Vice  President  of  United  States. 

PRAYER, Rev.  W.  H.  Furness,  D.  D. 

HISTORICAL  ORATION,         .  .  .  Dr.  Wm.  Elder. 


Frederick  Douglass,  Lu<  ret]  \  Mott,  Elizuh  Wright,  jr., 

Robert  Purvis,  Mrs.  F.  E.  W.  Harper,  C.C.Burleigh, 

Hon.  W.  S.  Peirce,  Bishop  D.  A.  Payne,  Prof.  J.  M.  Langston, 

A.  M.  Powell,  Abby  Kelley  Forster,  and  others. 


Bisii  i»  !•  Campbell, 

The  above  Speakers  will  participate  in  the  Evening  Exercises,  to  be  held  at 
Bethel  Church,  Sixth  below  Pine,  at  7J  o'clock,  P.  M. 


Wm.  Still,  Dillwyn  Parrish,  Joseph  M.  Truman,  Jr., 

Chairman,  PASSMORE  WILLIAMSON,  Henry  M.  Laing. 

700  Arch  Street. 

At  the  appointed  hour,  Wednesday  afternoon,  April  14th,  William 
Still,  Chairman  of  the  Committee  of  Arrangements,  called  the  meeting 
to  order.  The  stand  was  properly  decorated  with  the  national  ensign,  and 
bouquets  of  tasteful  flowers  adorned  the  desk.  Conspicuous  on  either  side 
of  the  Chairman,  were  men  eminent  in  the  annals  of  the  Society  and  in 
the  affairs  of  the  Union.  Hon.  Henry  Wilson,  Vice-President  of  the 
United  States,  occupied  the  central  seat  in  the  front  row.  Frederick 
Douglass,  the  eminent  and  eloquent  champion  of  his  race  sat  near ; 
supported  by  the  gifted  orator,  Robert  Purvis,  and  countenanced  by  Lu- 
cretia  Mott,  Abby  Kelley  Foster,  and  others  scarcely  less  known. 
Members  of  the  Society  of  Friends  were  conspicuous  everywhere, 
and  tempered  the  brilliant  colors  of  the  assembly  by  the  sedate  tone  of 
their  attire.  They  who  had  done  so  much  to  make  the  Centennial  pos- 
sible were  very  properly  prominent  in  its  observance.  Ex-Governor  Cur- 
tin,  C.  C.  Burleigh,  Prof.  Langston,  Bishop  Campbell,  Passmore  William- 
son, Elizur  Wright,  Henry  Armitt  Brown,  Esq.,  Dillwyn  Parrish, 
Frances  E.  W.  Harper,  Hon.  W.  S.  Peirce,  H.  M.  Laing,  Sarah  Pugh, 
Simon  Barnard,  Cyrus  Elder,  Rachel  W.  Townsend,  Geo.  Alsop,  Yardley 
Warner,  Hannah  Cox,  Dinah  Mendenhall,Geo.W.  Taylor,  Elijah  F.  Penny- 
packer,  and  others  whose  services  won  the  honor,  were  grouped  on  the  stage, 
in  the  sight  of  a  large  audience.  The  President  of  the  Society  then  called 
the  assemblage  to  order,  and  announced  that  the  Hon.  Henry  Wilson, 
Vice-President  of  the  United  States,  would  preside.  He,  coming  forward, 
acknowledged  the  reception  accorded  him  and  called  upon  Rev.  W.  H. 
Furness,  D.  D.,  to  invoke  the  Divine  blessing  upon  the  meeting.  Dr. 
Furness  did  so  as  follows : 


Oh  Thou,  E^er-Present  and  All-surrounding  Maker  and  Lord  of  all 
things,  Thou  hast  Thy  being  in  us  as  we  have  our  being  in  Thee.  We 
invoke  now  the  inspiration  and  the  blessing  of  Thy  felt  presence  in  our 
hearts.  We  rejoice  that  while  there  are  so  many  occasions  of  strife  and 
of  separation  among  men,  there  is  yet  one  cause  for  which  strangers  may 
meet  as  friends,  as  brothers  and  sisters  of  one  household.  Thus  coming 
together  now,  we  rejoice  in  the  manifestation  of  Thy  Spirit,  in  the  precious 
memories  which  this  day  brings  upon  the  cause  of  freedom  and  humani- 
ty, ever  advancing  even  from  the  smallest  beginnings  to  the  great 
triumph  which  it  has  been  our  privilege  to  witness.  Thou  hast  given  us 
to  see  what  wise  and  faithful  men,  martyrs,  and  prophets  longed  to  see, 
but  never  saw  save  in  prophetic  vision.     Truly  is  Thy  doing  marvellous 

in  our   eyes.     Not  unto  us,  not  unto  men  be  the  glory ;  for  no  flesh  can 
glory  in  Thy  most  manifest  presence. 

And  now  with  one  heart  do  we  pray  that  the  heart  of  this  great  nation 
may  not  die  and  lie  buried  under  the  mountain  of  its  worldly  prosperity ; 
but  may  our  just  and  equal  institutions  have  their  due  influence,  and  day 
by  day  and  hour  by  hour  may  they  breathe  into  the  hearts  of  this  people 
that  sacred  sentiment  of  human  respect  which  must  be  the  life  of  our 
life,  and  which  shall  so  expand  all  hearts  that  the  fetters  of  pride  and  pre- 
judice shall  fall  away,  even  as  the  chains  have  fallen  from  the  limbs  of 
the  slave.  May  Thy  kingdom  come,  O  God  !  the  kingdom  of  Thy  truth 
and  justice,  and  Thy  will  be  done  on  earth  as  it  is  done  by  the  angels  of 
Thy  presence.  Give  us  this  day  and  at  this  hour  what  is  needful  for  our 
souls  ;  may  we  forgive  as  we  hope  to  be  forgiven.  Lead  us  not  into  temp- 
tation, but  deliver  us  from  evil ;  for  Thine  is  the  kingdom,  the  power  and 
the  glory,  forever  and  ever. 



Hon.  Henry  Wilson,  Vice-President  of  the  United  States,  then  delivered 
a  Commemorative  oration,  with  an  earnest  eloquence  attested  by  his  long 
sympathy  for  and  aid  of  the  Society,  that  was  inspired  by  patriotic  joy 
and  national  pride,  and  riveted  the  unflagging  attention  of  the  great 
audience,  who  drowned  its  conclusion  in  applause.  The  Oration  was  as 
follows : 

Ladies  and  Gentlemen  :  The  duty  of  presiding  over  the  proceedings 
of  this  day  has  been  assigned  me  by  the  Board  of  Managers.  Gratefully 
I  accept  this  position,  and  at  once  enter  upon  the  performance  of  its  duties. 
To  be  chosen  to  preside  over  this  centennial  celebration  of  the  anniversary 
of  a  society  established  for  purposes  such  as  those  for  which  this  society 
was  established,  and  actuated  by  motives  such  as  those  which  actuated 
this  society— enrolling  among  its  members  names  so  illustrious,  and  accom- 
plishing a  work  so  grand— is  to  me  one  of  the  happiest  and  proudest 
events  of  my  life.  [Applause.]  The  organization  of  this  society  a  cen- 
tury ago  was  indeed  a  great  event,  and  its  history  is  one  of  the  purest, 
grandest,  and  noblest  of  any  organization  in  the  history  of  the  world.  Its 
effect  and  influence  in  the  early  days  of  the  Republic  were  seen  and 
acknowledged.  Its  labors  at  a  later  period— at  the  time  when  the  cruel 
fugitive  slave  act  was  being  executed  in  the  country— were  seen  and  felt ; 

and  the  evidences  of  those  labors  were  manifested  in  this  city,  in  the  coun- 
ties around  about  you,  and  in  the  border  counties  of  Pennsylvania.  The 
country  has  never  known  more  faithful  men — and  women,  too — than  have 
been  connected  with  the  Pennsylvania  Abolition  Society. 

There  is  to-day,  thank  God,  no  slave  in  the  Republic !  [Applause.] 
The  fetters  were  not  melted  off  by  kindly  influences,  but  were  stricken  off 
by  the  rude  hand  of  civil  war.  The  chains  fell  not  from  the  limbs  of  the 
slave  by  the  conversion  of  the  master,  but  by  the  interposition  of  the 
strong  hand  of  power.  And,  ladies  and  gentlemen,  remember  to-day,  on 
this  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  organization  of  this  great  society,  that 
the  work  for  which  this  society  was  organized  is  not  yet  accomplished. 
The  slave  is  free,  but  the  system  of  slavery  left  behind  it  influences,  and 
powers,  and  scars  which  only  the  humanity,  the  Christianity  of  the  Ameri- 
can people  can  work  away.  Dr.  Furness  alluded  to  the  falling  of  the 
chains  from  the  limbs  of  the  slave,  and  has  prayed  to  God  that  the  time 
might  come  when  human  passions  and  prejudices  might  so  fall  away.  The 
thought  is  a  beautiful  one.  Humane  Christianity !  It  should  be  the 
vital,  animating  spirit  of  this  nation  to  work  away  these  prejudices,  to  lift 
up  the  poor  and  the  lowly,  and  make  the  Republic  that  which  in  deed  and 
in  truth  it  ought  to  be — a  Christian  land,  where  every  man  is  fully  pro- 
tected in  his  rights  as  a  citizen. 

I  fear,  ladies  and  gentlemen,  that  there  is  in  the  country  to-day,  a  coun- 
ter-revolution against  the  colored  man.  It  must  be  met  by  the  men  whose 
hearts  are  bathed  in  the  anti-slavery  sentiment,  and  who  mean,  God  bless- 
ing us,  that  the  spirit  of  anti-slavery  shall  pervade  the  whole  land,  North 
and  South.  [Applause.]  Let  it  be  understood,  then,  henceforth  and 
forever,  that  no  matter  what  time  it  takes,  no  matter  what  it  costs,  the 
sentiment  of  the  Abolition  Society  of  Pennsylvania,  with  that  of  kin- 
dred and  more  recent  organizations,  must  pervade  this  land ;  that  the 
condition  of  the  colored  men  must  be  improved  ;  that  the  condition  of  the 
poor  white  men  who  suffered  by  slavery  must  be  improved — aye,  too,  that 
the  condition  of  that  deluded  but  smitten  and  stricken  section  of  our 
country  must  be  improved.  Let  it  be  understood  then  that  while  we  love 
the  black  man,  and  mean  to  lift  him  up,  to  elevate  and  protect  him,  and 
to  aid  him  in  the  grand  work  of  self-improvement,  we  also  mean  to  lift 
up,  elevate,  and  improve  the  poor-white  men  whom  slavery  smote.  Aye, 
and  we  mean  to  improve  the  condition  of  the  erring  and  sinning  masses, 
and  to  build  up  our  country  and  make  our  country  what  it  ought  to  be — 
an  example  and  an  inspiration  for  the  nations.     [Great  applause.]    • 

The  Hutchinson  Family  sang  one  of  the  melodies  they  made  familiar 
in  former  years. 

Eobert  Purvis,  Esq.,  was  introduced  to  read  the  letters  of  invited  guests 
who  were  unable  to  attend.     He  said  as  a  preliminary: 

Mr.  Chairman  :  Of  the  letters  that  are  placed  in  my  hands  I  shall 
read  but  a  few.  The  first  is  from  the  great  Pioneer ;  the  man  who  caught 
the  inspiration  from  the  pamphlet  of  the  Quaker  girl  in  England,  who,  as 
against  gradualism,  declared  the  doctrine  of  immediatism  as  alike  the 
right  of  the  slave  and  the  duty  of  the  master.  This  letter,  sir,  is  from 
William  Lloyd  Garrison.     [Applause.]     It  reads  as  follows : 

Boston,  April  12,  1875. 
Dear  Mr.  Still:  Honored  with  a  pressing  invitation  to  participate 
in  the  Centennial  anniversary  of  the  Pennsylvania  Society  for  the  Pro- 
motion of  the  Abolition  of  Slavery,  etc.,  to  be  celebrated  in  Philadelphia 
on  the  14th  instant,  I  can  only  return  my  thanks  for  the  same,  regretting 
that  circumstances  oblige  me  to  be  absent.  This  celebration  is  certainly 
as  suggestive  as  it  is  unique.  An  Anti-slavery  Society  a  century  old  ! 
And  of  that  long  period  only  the  last  ten  years  have  witnessed  the  aboli- 
tion of  that  inhuman  slave  system,  in  opposition  to  which  the  Society  was 
organized  !  Half  a  million  of  slaves  at  the  commencement  multiplying  to 
four  millions  before  their  emancipation !  Ninety  years  of  persistent, 
active,  shameless  slave-holding,  slave-hunting,  slave-trading,  by  a  people 
claiming  to  have  Christ  for  their  divine  examplar,  the  Bible  for  their  only 
rule  of  faith  and  practice,  and  genuine  democracy  as  the  pole-star  of  their 
political  form  of  government !  Ninety  years  of  sinful  compromises  to  per- 
petuate an  oppression,  "  one  hour  of  which,"  so  testified  Thomas  Jefferson, 
"  was  fraught  with  more  misery  than  ages  of  that  which  our  fathers  rose 
in  rebellion  to  oppose  !"  Ninety  years  busily  occupied  in  an  insane  attempt 
to  bring  into  concord  light  and  darkness,  God  and  Mammon,  Christ  and 
Belial,  and  to  make  homogeneous  ideas,  customs,  and  institutions  inhe- 
rently antagonistical !  And  this  awful  state  of  thiugs  at  last  ending,  not 
in  a  general  repentance  and  contrition,  but  by  a  bloody  retribution  long 
ago  predicted,  and  for  many  years  admonishingly  set  forth  by  the  true 
friends  of  equal  rights,  if  justice  were  not  speedily  done.  "  Thus  saith 
the  Lord :  Ye  have  not  hearkened  unto  me,  in  proclaiming  liberty,  every 
one  to  his  brother,  and  every  man  to  his  neighbor:  behold,  I  proclaim  a, 
liberty  for  you,  saith  the  Lord,  to  the  sword,  to  the  pestilence,  and  to 
the  famine."     What  a  record  of  hypocrisy  and  double-dealing! 

Will  it  be  said  that  the  past,  with  whatever  of  shame  or  guilt  attaches 


to  it,  ought  to  be  buried  in  oblivion  ;  that,  as  not  a  slave  is  left  to  clank 
his  fetters  in  all  the  land,  conciliation  and  good-will  are  the  duties  of  the 
hour;  that  to  revive  such  recollections  can  only  tend  to  perpetuate  feelings 
of  alienation  and  bitterness?  Suggestions  like  these  have  a  plausible 
sound,  but  they  are  illusory.  Our  progress  in  unity,  in  all  that  tends 
to  make  a  people  truly  great  and  prosperous,  will  be  exactly  in  propor- 
tion to  our  willingness  to  contemplate  the  causes  of  our  fearful  visitations, 
that  we  may  all  the  more  earnestly  "study  the  things  that  make  for 
peace,"  by  securing  to  all  the  inhabitants  of  the  land  their  God-given 
rights,  so  that  neither  under  the  National  nor  any  State  government  shall 
there  be  any  intolerance  toward  any  class  on  the  American  soil.  Admitting 
that  we  have  many  reasons  for  "  thanking  God  and  taking  courage,"  I 
think  that  there  are  also  many  others  which  should  serve  to  stimulate  us 
to  earnest  and  persistent  action  in  well-doing  by  remembering  that  "  the 
price  of  liberty  is  eternal  vigilance."  May  your  celebration  be  in  all 
respects  worthy  of  the  event ! 

Yours,  for  universal  freedom,  Wm.  Lloyd  Garrison. 

Letters  regretting  the  inability  of  the  writers  to  be  present  were  also 
received  from  Wendell  Phillips  of  Massachusetts,  John  G.  Whittier  of 
Massachusetts,  President  U.  S.  Grant,  George  W.  Curtis  of  New  York, 
John  Needles  of  Maryland,  Rev.  John  Sargeant  of  Massachusetts,  Joseph 
A.  Dugdale  of  Iowa,  Rev.  Samuel  May  of  Boston,  Rev.  R.  Collyer  of 
Illinois,  James  G.  Thompson  of  South  Carolina,  George  W.  Julian  of 
Indiana,  Edmund  Quincy  of  Massachusetts,  Gen.  B.  F.  Butler  of  Massa- 
chusetts, Gov.  Hartranft,  Mayor  Stokley  and  A.  B.  Bradford  of  Penn- 
sylvania, R.  F.  Walcott  of  Massachusetts,  A.  M.  Powell  of  Massachusetts, 
Samuel  M.  Janney  of  Virginia,  Rev.  C  B.  Ray  of  New  York,  Rev.  John 
F.  Sargeant  of  Massachusetts,  Rev.  George  Whipple  of  New  York,  John 
P.  Green  of  Ohio,  and  Rev.  O.  B.  Frothingham  of  New  York,  and  Geo. 
F.  McFarland.     Brief  extracts  from  these  were  read. 

Amesbuky,  24th  Third  Month,  1875. 

Dillwyn  Parrish  : — My  dear  Friend  : — I  regret  more  than  I  can 
express  that  I  cannot  be  with  thee  and  other  dear  old  friends  and  co- 
workers in  the  cause  of  freedom  on  the  occasion  of  the  Centennial  Anni- 
versary of  the  Pennsylvania  Abolition  Society. 

For,  indeed,  it  is  an  event  of  no  ordinary  significance,  this  centennial 
of  the  first  society  ever  formed  for  the  abolition  of  slavery. 

It  commemorates  one  of  the  great  aggressive  movements  of  Christian 
civilization  against  the  still  surviving  barbarism  of  an  age  of  brute  force 
and  selfishness. 


What  a  history  is  connected  with  it !  What  a  struggle  between  all  that 
is  best  and  all  that  is  vilest  in  human  nature  has  marked    its  progress ! 

What  faith,  what  courage,  what  noble  aspirations,  what  generous  self- 
sacrifice  has  it  known !  How  many  blessings  from  souls  rescued  from  the 
intolerable  hell  of  slavery  have  made  the  sleep  of  its  members  sweeter 
and  compensated  them  for  their  life-long  labors  ! 

Looking  over  its  roll  of  membership,  we  find  the  names  of  men  whose 
memory  is  precious — the  elect  and  called  of  God  to  the  noblest  service — 
men  every  way  worthy  of  a  State  whose  foundations  were  laid  in  prayer, 
and  to  whose  charter  of  rights  and  liberties  the  joint  wisdom  of  Penn 
and  Sydney  contributed. 

The  great  Centennial  of  American  Independence  of  the  coming  year 
will  show  that  no  State  has  a  prouder  record  than  Pennsylvania:  but  in 
all  her  rich  inheritance  of  renown  she  has  nothing  better  than  her  Aboli- 
tion Society,  the  first  of  its  kind  in  the  world's  history,  numbering  among 
its  supporters  such  men  as  Franklin,  Baldwin,  Rush,  Pemberton,  Mifflin, 
Shipley,  Needles,  and  thy  own  honored  father. 

The  world  slowly  emerging  from  the  darkness  of  the  Stone  Age,  still, 
doubtless,  over-estimates  its  warrior  champions;  but  the  time  is  not  far 
distant  when  justice  will  be  done  to  the  heroes  of  the  bloodless  victories 
of  Christian  civilization  and  progress. 

Their  armor  rings  on  a  fairer  field 

Than  Greek  or  Trojan  ever  trod  ; 
For  freedom's  sword  is  the  blade  they  wield, 

And  the  light  above  is  the  smile  of  God. 

So  far  as  the  abolition  of  slavery  is  concerned,  the  work  of  the  society  is 
done.  Mainly  upon  the  colored  people  themselves  now  depends  the  ques- 
tion whether,  by  patient  industry,  sobriety  and  assiduous  self-culture,  they 
shall  overcome  the  unchristian  prejudice  still  existing  against  them,  or 
by  indolence,  thriftlessness,  and  moral  and  physical  degradation,  they 
shall  confirm  and  strengthen  it. 

But  there  is  on  the  part  of  all  who  have  sought  their  freedom,  no  lack 
of  occasion  for  labor  in  their  behalf  in  accordance  with  the  very  spirit 
and  letter  of  the  constitution  of  the  Pennsylvania  Abolition  Society, 
which  is  pledged  to  "  the  relief  of  free  negroes." 

All  that  can  be  done  consistent  with  the  constitutional  right  of  States, 
should  be  done  for  their  protection  by  the  General  Government,  and  there 
is  do  philanthropic  object  at  the  present  time  more  deserving  of  encourage- 
ment than  that  of  the  education  of  the  children  of  freedmen. 


In  this  point  of  view  there  is  still  work  for  the  old  parent  society,  and 
it  has  a  legitimate  right  to  exist  and  continue  its  labors  of  love  so  long 
as  there  is  prejudice  to  overcome  or  ignorance  to  be  enlightened. 

Accept,  dear  friend,  assurances  of  old-time  love  and  respect  from  thy 
friend.  John  G.  Whittier. 


Dr.  William  Elder  was  then  introduced  by  the  chairman  with  some 
complimentary  remarks,  observing  that  he  needed  no  introduction  to  a 
Pennsylvania  audience.  Dr.  Elder  spoke  extemporaneously,  and  dis- 
cussed the  progress  of  Abolition  from  the  first  suggestion  to  its  victory,  as 
follows : 

Ladies  and  Gentlemen  :  In  assuming  to  discharge  the  duty  which 
has  been  requested  and  required  of  me  by  the  Committee  of  Arrange- 
ments, I  shall  follow  the  line  of  thought  which  has  been  designated  for 
me  by  the  committee.  It  is  unfortunate  that  in  this  instance  they  should 
have  selected  "the  wrong  man  "  for  "the  right  place;"  inasmuch  as  the 
subject  of  which  I  am  to  treat  being  of  an  historical  character,  and  there- 
fore necessarily  dependent  mainly  upon  facts  and  dates,  should  properly 
be  presented  from  written  notes,  whereas  my  habit  has  been  during  all 
my  life  to  speak  extemporaneously.  I  once  tried  to  read  in  public  a 
lecture,  but  it  was  the  only  time  I  ever  essayed  such  a  task.  Aside  from 
that,  there  is  this  consideration :  the  facts  and  the  dates  that  go  to  make 
up  the  history  of  this  hundred  years  whose  close  you  are  now  here  to  cele- 
brate, and  the  circumstances  and  influences  that  hover  around  that 
momentous  era,  cannot  now  be  memorized — nay,  it  is  impossible  to  read 
them  to  you  because  they  have  as  yet  not  all  been  written,  and  the  day 
has  not  yet  come  when  they  can  be  fully  comprehended.  If  stated  with 
only  comparative  accuracy  and  amplitude,  what  a  compendium  of  events, 
what  a  chronology  would  not  that  history  comprise — what  a  host  of 
memories  would  rise  up  to  confront  us  here  to-day !  Who  now  can  faith- 
fully trace  the  current  and  river  of  this  great  anti-slavery  influence  to  the 
rills  and  brooks  and  spring-tops  and  mountain-heads  from  which  it  started  ? 
I  repeat,  I  do  not  think  the  time  has  yet  come  when  even  the  best  of  us 
can  fully  comprehend  this  influence.  I  know  not  in  which  direction  the 
most  powerful  springs  of  action  are  to  be  traced.  Sometimes  I  have 
thought  it  was  to  the  leading  minds  of  the  times,  and  that  history  would 
so  record  it.     Again,  it  has  occurred  to  me  that  in  my  own  experience  it 


was  in  the  common  heart  of  the  masses  of  the  people  that  I  had  found  the 
strongest  resources  for  the  little  labor  that  I  may  have  performed  in  the 

The  epoch  in  which  your  Society  had  its  origin  is  marked  by  events 
such  as  these.  In  1776,  Friends'  Yearly  Meeting  took  the  decisive 
step  of  subjecting  to  discipline  and  disownment  members  who  held  slaves 
over  lawful  age.  Emancipations  about  this  time  became  very  frequent, 
both  within  and  without  the  Quaker  community.  Without  following  any 
exact  order  in  point  of  date,  the  facts  are  that  in  1778  Jefferson  had  a 
bill  passed  by  the  Legislature  of  Virginia  abolishing  the  foreign  slave 
trade — I  mean  prohibiting  the  importation  of  slaves  into  that  State.  In 
1787  he  provided,  in  the  bill  for  the  cession  to  the  old  Confederacy  of  the 
Northwestern  Territory,  (embracing  within  it  the  territorial  limits  of  the 
States  of  Ohio,  Indiana,  and  Illinois),  that  slavery  should  cease  forever  in 
that  large  domain  after  the  year  1800;  this  provision,  which  was  intro- 
duced by  the  Virginia  Legislature,  being  identical  in  terms  with  that  of 
the  celebrated  Wilmot  Proviso  offered  in  184G  in  respect  to  any  and  all 
territory  that  should  be  acquired  from  Mexico.  In  1772  the  famous 
Somerset  case  was  decided  by  Lord  Mansfield,  though  Chief  Justice  Hole- 
ton's  decision  was  made  in  much  stronger  terms  at  least  eighty  years 
before.  The  Chief  Justice  decided  that  no  law  of  England  ever  made  a 
slave ;  that  "  there  were  villeins  indeed,  but  no  chattel  slaves ;"  that  the 
absolute  right  to  the  body  of  a  man  was  not  English.  Jefferson's  Notes 
on  the  State  of  Virginia,  printed  in  Paris  in  1784,  contained  the  famous 
passage,  with  which  you  are  all  familiar  :  "  The  Almighty  has  no  attri- 
bute that  could  take  part  with  us  in  a  servile  war ;  I  tremble  for  my  coun- 
try when  I  feel  that  God  is  just." 

In  1780  the  Legislature  of  Pennsylvania  passed  the  act  for  the  gradual 
abolition  of  slavery  in  this  State.  In  1770,  Granville  Sharpe  first  appears 
in  the  conduct  of  the  Somerset  case.  Clarkson  and  Wilberforce  must  be 
dated  about  the  year  1785,  and  "William  Pitt,  chief  of  the  Ministry,  and 
Charles  James  Fox,  leader  of  the  Opposition,  joined  in  antagonism  to  the 
slave  trade  in  1790.  The  English  House  of  Commons  passed  a  bill  for 
the  suppression  of  the  slave  trade  in  1793  and  again  in  1794,  which  bill 
failed  in  the  House  of  Peers,  but  was  finally  passed  in  1807.  In  1777  the 
State  of  Vermont  passed  an  act  abolishing  slavery  in  that  State.  At  that 
time  Vermont  had  less  than  three  hundred  slaves  within  her  territory. 
Pennsylvania,  when  she  abolished  her  system  of  slavery,  held  nearly  four 
thousand  slaves.  According  to  the  interpretation  of  her  constitution  sub- 
sequently rendered  by  the  Supreme  Court,  Massachusetts  abolished  slavery 


in  1780  by  her  constitution.  On  the  15th  of  May,  1791,  France,  by  her 
National  Assembly,  virtually  granted  equal  political  rights  to  free  men, 
without  regard  to  color. 

To  this  list  I  now  add  the  date  of  the  organization  of  your  own  Society. 

It  was  organized  on  the  14th  of  April,  1775,  with  John  Baldwin  as  its 
President,  and  Thomas  Harrison  as  its  Secretary  ;  with  whom  were  very 
soon  associated,  in  sentiment  and  in  action,  men  whose  names  are  leading 
and  inextinguishable  in  the  history  of  our  country.  In  1787  Benjamin 
Franklin  was  elected  President  and  Dr.  Benjamin  Rush  one  of  its  Secre- 
taries.    The  list  embraces  some  two  hundred  and  forty-four  names. 

These  facts  and  dates  define  and  embrace  the  time  of  the  National  birth- 
day of  the  United  States  of  America,  and  the  whole  period  is  marked  by 
an  epidemic  of  abolitionism,  both  in  these  States  and  the  whole  of  Western 

Here  I  am  led  to  remark  that  while  a  history  looks  up  the  day-springs 
of  the  great  events  which  it  narrates,  there  is  not  in  reality,  either  in 
science,  morals,  or  politics,  any  means  of  fixing  the  dates  of  discoveries 
so  absolutely  as  to  mark  with  precision  the  areas  of  their  great  revolutions. 
These  dates  are  in  facts  as  inconclusive  as  was  Topsy's  genealogy,  who, 
when  asked  who  made  her,  replied,  "  I  dunno  :  I  'spect  I  growed."  The 
greatest  and  gravest  of  the  received  authorities  seems  compelled  to  declare 
that  it  was  in  the  beginning  that  God  made  the  heavens  and  the  earth,  and 
no  more  definite  date  can  be  given  to  any  great  event  which  He  has 
inspired.  Exactly  where  one  wave  of  the  ocean  begins  or  ends  is  not 
seen  ;  it  is  only  toward  their  crests  that  they  become  clearly  distinct.  We 
must,  therefore,  content  ourselves  with  stating  in  general  that  in  this 
wickedness  of  personal  slavery  the  whole  world  lay  until  some  time  about 
the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,  when  a  new  world  of  men  and  things 
began  to  emerge,  so  fruitful  of  wonders  during  its  first  century  of  progress 
that  no  tongue  can  tell,  no  mind  can  comprehend  them.  About  this  epoch 
the  spirit  of  reform  moved  abroad  on  the  face  of  the  earth,  and  the  greater 
and  lesser  lights  gathered  into  suns,  and  moons,  and  stars,  and  divided 
the  day  from  the  night;  moral,  religious,  and  political  liberty  broke  into 
insurrection  and  revolution,  and  their  course  has  ever  since  run  from  vic- 
tory to  victory,  "  leading  captivity  captive,"  until  now,  upon  the  great 
centennial  of  our  own  national  history,  the  chattel  slavery  of  man  in  the 
whole  civilized  world  is  dead.  Who  is  sufficient  for  these  things?  What 
colossal  intellect  can  retrace  even  the  topmost  stepping-stones  that  marked 
the  progress  of  the  last  half  of  the  eighteenth  century  in  the  abolishment 
of  the  slaveries  of  every  form  which  hung  upon  it  at  its  beginning  ?  Think 


of  the  biographical  dictionary  that  should  hold  the  deeds  of  the  heroes  of 
this  great  history.  Think  of  the  chronological  list  that  would  give  their 

We  turn  now  to  a  second  period  of  our  history.  A  member  of  the 
convention  which  formed  our  Federal  Constitution,  upon  returning  to  his 
Massachusetts  constituency,  felicitated  them  with  the  announcement  that 
they  had  given  slavery  its  death-blow.  Yet  that  was  twenty  years  before 
Congress  abolished  the  foreign  slave  trade  of  the  United  States.  Even 
then  the  atmosphere  of  the  whole  civilized  world  was  bright  in  the  light 
of  anti-slavery  sentiment  and  abolition  effort.  At  this  time  (the  period 
of  the  formation  of  the  Federal  Constitution),  Franklin  and  Rush  pre- 
sided over  the  labors  of  the  Pennsylvania  Society :  John  Jay  and  Alex- 
ander Hamilton  were  President  and  Vice-president  of  the  New  York 
Manumission  Society.  Other  associations  were  formed  in  the  other 
Eastern  States,  and  they  were  vigorous  and  hopeful  in  the  South  ;  in  Vir- 
ginia, Delaware,  Maryland,  Kentucky,  Georgia,  and  North  Carolina. 
The  doctrines  of  these  associations  went,  I  think,  no  further  than  gradual 
abolition.  What  Franklin  and  his  associates  meant  by  asking  Congress, 
in  1790,  to  "  devise  means  for  removing  the  inconsistency  of  slavery  from 
the  American  people,  and  to  step  to  the  very  verge  of  its  power  for  dis- 
couraging every  species  of  traffic  in  the  persons  of  our  fellow-men,"  is 
easily  inferred.  This  petition,  signed  by  Franklin  as  the  president  of 
your  Society,  was  sent  to  the  first  Congress,  at  not  later  than  its  second 

Now  the  third  epoch  of  this  eventful  history  opens  upon  us.  After  the 
achievements  and  triumphs  of  the  times  of  1776  and  the  abolition  of  the 
foreign  slave  trade  of  the  United  States,  there  was  a  lull  in  the  movement 
of  the  people  of  these  two  countries  until,  in  1<619,  the  Missouri  question 
awakened  the  slumbering  energies  of  the  Northern  States.  During  the 
period  of  this  comparative  inaction  the  phase  in  the  fortunes  of  our  colored 
people  had  been  steadily  assuming  portentous  features.  In  1793  Whit- 
ney produced  his  cotton  gin  for  the  separation  of  the  seed  from  the  fibre. 
Before  that  a  negro  woman  could  not  clean  more  than  one  pound  in  a  day. 
Whitney's  machine  finished  three  hundred  weight  per  diem,  or  did  three 
hundred  and  thirty  times  the  amount  of  work  that  a  slave  could  perform. 
This  made  the  cotton  production  very  profitable,  and  slavery,  employed 
in  the  culture  of  the  plant,  rose  proportionately  in  value.  Somewhere 
between  1807  and  1820  the  invention  of  machinery  and  the  application 
of  steam  in  the  manufacture  into  all  the  forms  of  use  brought  into  the 
field  of  this  warfare  an  auxiliary  to  the  slavery  forces  that,  for  a  long 


while,  was  perfectly  irresistible.  Humanity,  morality,  political  consistency, 
national  honor,  and  national  safety — all  were  overpowered,  and  the  exten- 
sion of  slavery  to  new  territory  and  the  acquisition  of  other  new  territory 
for  its  extension  became  the  ruling  policy  of  the  South  and  of  their  sym- 
pathizers in  the  North. 

In  this  state  of  things  the,  first  square  fight  between  the  parties  came 
upon  us  in  1819-20.  The  old  love  of  liberty  aroused,  struggled  manfully 
and  bravely,  but  the  axe  had  not  been  laid  at  the  root  of  the  tree  in  the 
Revolutionary  period;  only  some  of  its  branches  had  been  lopped  off, 
while  others  grew  into  great  strength  under  the  fostering  influence  of  the 
golden  showers  that  Trade  poured  upon  them.  The  contest  of  that  day 
was  lost  to  the  friends  of  Liberty.  In  the  trial  hour,  when  the  result  of 
the  battle  hung  upon  a  doubt,  the  Great  Compromiser  came  into  the 
struggle,  won  his  title  of  Pacificator,  and  for  long  years  afterwards  the 
compromisers,  pacificators,  and  Union-savers  left  behind  them  the  strife 
they  had  so  often  settled  and  compromised,  to  be  finally  settled  and  pacifi- 
cated  by  the  bayonet. 

After  the  defeat  of  1818-20  the  losing  party  began  to  look  to  the  effi- 
ciency of  the  weapons  they  had  used  in  the  battle  which  they  had  so  sadly 
lost.  They  saw  that  in  this  Republic  Cotton  had  become  King  de  facto, 
and  that  slavery  had  absolutely  reached  the  sovereignty.  They  could  not 
submit  to  defeat,  though  the  glaring  fact  confronted  them  that  slaves  of 
not  more  than  the  average  market  price  of  $25  in  1790  had  risen  to  $300 
before  1830,  while  their  number  had  swollen  from  not  quite  seven  hundred 
thousand  to  above  three  millions.  Gradual  abolition  and  assistance  to 
negroes  unlawfully  held  in  bondage  had  utterly  failed  of  their  hopes. 

These  weapons  struck  wide  of  the  mark.  The  system  of  slavery  itself 
was  clearly  the  heart  an<?  source  of  all  the  evils  engendered  by  it,  and 
they  now  knew  that  at  that  vital  point  every  blow  must  be  aimed.  Gran- 
ville Sharpe,  as  early  as  1787,  in  a  society  formed  in  London,  for  the  sup- 
pression of  the  slave  trade,  insisted  upon  opposing  slavery  also.  In  this 
he  was,  perhaps,  twenty  years  ahead  of  his  compeers,  Wilberforce  and 
Clarkson.  The  next  earliest  I  have  met  with  was  Elizabeth  Heyrick,  of 
London,  I  believe,  who,  in  1823,  published  a  pamphlet  entitled  "Imme- 
diate, Not  Gradual,  Emancipation."  The  friends  of  the  great  cause, 
however,  did  not  immediately  adopt  the  doctrine  ;  they  graduated  slowly 
through  gradualism,  or  colonization,  until  they  finally  took  the  vantage 
ground  of  Immediateism.  And  there  they  stood,  without  dodging  or 
apology,  through  terrible  trials  and  sufferings,  until  the  common  foe 
awoke  the  common  wrath  of  the  whole  nation,  and  Abraham  Lincoln 


officially  gave'  the  foe  the  coup  de  grace  which  Granville  Sharpe  and 
Elizabeth  Heyrick  meant  for  it.  The  armies  of  the  Union  empowered 
him  to  deal  "  the  stroke  of  mercy,"  that  at  once  put  the  monster  out  of  the 
field  of  battle,  and  out  of  his  pain  in  dying. 

The  next  Immediateist  who  stands  conspicuously  in  the  story  of  this 
struggle  is  Benjamin  Lundy,  who,  beginning  in  1815  in  St.  Clairsville, 
Ohio,  there  organized  a  society  of  five  hundred  members.  Soon  after- 
wards he  purchased  out  of  his  scanty  means  a  newspaper,  and  devoted  it 
entirely  to  the  promotion  of  the  anti-slavery  cause.  He  removed  this 
paper,  which  he  called  The  Genius  of  Universal  Emancipation,  to  Balti- 
more ;  where,  in  1829,  Wm.  Lloyd  Garrison  joined  him  in  its  editorial 
management.  Lundy  connected  colonization  with  his  scheme,  favoring 
Texas  or  Hayti,  or  other  suitable  localities,  as  the  promised  land  for  the 
great  modern  exodus  from  our  Egypt.  He  has  never,  perhaps,  been  ex- 
ceeded in  zeal,  labor,  and  sacrifice  by  any  philanthropist.  Mr.  Gar- 
rison himself  was  a  distinguished  Colonizationist,  and  in  Baltimore,  in 
1830,  he  was  imprisoned  for  alleged  libel  published  upon  a  slave-trader, 
and  for  disturbing  the  public  peace.  His  trials  and  labors  then  began. 
I  cannot  detail  them  if  I  would.     I  need  not  if  I  could. 

About  1840-41,  the  date  of  the  establishment  of  The  Liberator,  the 
strife  began  that  was  destined  to  introduce  the  fifth  and  last  act  of  this 
grand  tragedy.  This  fourth  period,  covering  the  thirty  years'  war  of  ar- 
guments for  weapons ;  a  war  under  the  forms  of  peace  ;  a  war  at  once  de- 
fensive and  aggressive  was  a  battle  to  the  death,  yet  a  battle  that  "  took 
from  conquest  its  crime,  and  from  victory  its  chains."  On  one  side  was  ar- 
rayed the  slaveow/ier  of  the  South,  and  the  slaveholder  of  the  North  ;  on 
the  other,  the  many-headed  mass  of  the  friends  of  Liberty.  Slavery  now 
no  longer  stood  the  apologist  of  its  attendant  evils,  but  the  bold  prosecu- 
tor of  the  disturbers  of  the  public  peace.  Everything  that  malice  and 
fear  could  suggest,  the  monster  practiced.  It  bribed  and  bullied  our  poli- 
ticians ;  it  dominated  the  press  ;  it  profaned  the  pulpit ;  it  put  its  livery 
upon  religion,  and  dressed  our  philosophy  in  its  cap  and  bells  ;  it  denied 
the  right  of  petition  to  our  people ;  it  branded  our  birthright,  liberty  of 
speech,  as  incendiary  ;  it  proposed  to  censure  one  of  our  representatives 
for  asking  whether  a  petition  from  slaves  might  be  offered  in  the  Federal 
House  of  Representatives,  and  well-nigh  killed  one  of  our  senators  in  his 
seat  because  of  his  steady  aud  persistent  defence  of  public  justice.  It  re- 
pealed all  that  had  any  good  in  it  of  the  Missouri  Compromise;  it  inau- 
gurated a  war  with  Mexico  for  the  extension  of  its  territorial  dominion, 
and  "  snaked  in  "  Texas,  with  a  territory  six  times  the  size  of  Massachu- 


setts,  and  doomed  it  to  slavery.  This  move  in  regard  to  Texas  it  accom- 
plished under  the  forms  of  an  international  treaty,  when  it  could  not  have 
accomplished  it  under  any  form  of  law  or  precedent.  And  it  finally  de- 
cided that  the  colored  people  had  "  no  rights  which  white  men  were  bound 
to  respect." 

At  the  close  of  the  rebellion  we  had  upon  our  hands,  say,  four  millions 
of  slaves.  Immediateism  then  boldly  undertook  the  risks  and  performed 
the  duty  of  emancipating  this  host — a  host  greater  by  far  in  number  than 
was  that  which  Moses  was  able  to  conduct  in  safety  through  the  desert 
into  the  promised  land.     What  are  the  results  ? 

England  emancipated  her  slaves  mainly  because  they  were  worthless  as 
property  to  their  masters,  but  urged,  also  doubtless  by  sentiments  of  reli- 
gion and  morality;  but  70,000  of  her  emancipated  countrymen  were  hung 
in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  Now,  in  relative  ratio  to  population,  this 
number  of  executions  for  crime  would  equal,  in  the  population  of  Penn- 
sylvania, five  victims  per  day.  These  homeless  wretches  were  hung  for 
burglary,  larceny,  trespass,  and  vagrancy — for  all  the  offences  that  poverty 
and  destitution  could  suggest.  This  experience  strengthened  the  argument 
against  emancipation  in  this  country.  But  behold !  Our  freedmen  have 
passed  into  citizenship  in  the  face  of  prejudice  and  of  every  burden  that 
they  could  be  made  to  bear,  without  arsons,  murders,  riots,  or  such  im- 
poverishment as  seemed  clearly  impending  upon  them.  The  purity  of 
the  principle  and  the  righteousness  of  the  policy  are  vindicated  now  and 
forever  by  the  fact  that  these  people  have  passed  from  bondage  into  free- 
dom more  safely  than  have  any  other  people  in  the  world's  wide  history. 

The  Hutchinson  Family  sang  Whittier's  "Furnace  Blast,"  at  the  close 
of  Dr.  Elder's  oration,  in  such  a  manner  and  with  such  spirit  that  it  eli- 
cited great  applause. 


We  wait  beneath  the  furnace-blast 

The  pangs  of  transformation ; 
Not  painlessly  doth  God  recast 
And  mould  anew  the  nation. 
Hot  burns  the  fire 
Where  wrongs  expire ; 
Nor  spares  the  hand 
That  from  the  land 
Uproots  the  ancient  evil. 

The  hand-breadth  cloud  the  sages  feared 
Its  bloody  rain  is  dropping; 


The  poison  plant  the  fathers  spared 
All  else  is  overtopping. 
East,  West,  South,  North, 
It  curses  the  earth  ; 
All  justice  dies, 
And  fraud  and  lies 
Live  only  in  its  shadow. 

What  gives  the  wheat-field  blades  of  steel  ? 

What  points  the  rebel  cannon  ? 
What  sets  the  roaring  rabble's  heel 
On  the  old  star-sjtangled  pennon  ? 
What  breaks  the  oath 
Of  the  men  o'  the  South 
For  the  Union's  life  ? — 
Hark  to  the  answer :  Slavery  ! 

Then  waste  no  blows  on  lesser  foes 

In  strife  unworthy  freemen. 
God  lifts  to-day  the  vail,  and  shows 
The  features  of  the  demon  ! 
O  North  and  South, 
Its  victims  both, 
Can  ye  not  cry, 
"  Let  slavery  die  !" 
And  union  find  in  freedom  ? 

What  though  the  cast-out  spirit  tear 

The  nation  in  his  going  ? 
We  who  have  shared  the  guilt  must  share 
The  pang  of  his  o'erthrowing  ! 
Whate'er  the  loss, 
Whate'er  the  cross, 
Shall  they  complain 
Of  present  pain 
Who  trust  in  God's  hereafter  ? 

For  who  that  leans  on  His  right  arm 

Was  ever  yet  forsaken  ? 
What  righteous  cause  can  suffer  harm 
If  He  its  part  has  taken  ? 
Though  wild  and  loud 
And  dark  the  cloud 
Behind  its  folds 
His  hand  upholds 
The  calm  sky  of  to-morrow ! 


Above  the  maddening  cry  for  blood, 

Above  the  wild  war-drumming, 
Let  Freedom's  voice  be  heard,  with  good 
The  evil  overcoming. 
Give  prayer  and  purse 
To  stay  the  Curse 
Whose  wrong  we  share, 
Whose  shame  we  bear, 
Whose  end  shall  gladden  Heaven  ! 

In  vain  the  bells  of  war  shall  ring 

Of  triumphs  and  revenges, 
While  still  is  spared  the  evil  thing 
That  severs  and  estranges. 
But  blest  the  ear 
That  yet  shall  hear 
The  jubilant  bell 
That  rings  the  knell 
Of  Slavery  forever  ! 

Then  let  the  selfish  lip  be  dumb, 

And  hushed  the  breath  of  sighing  ; 
Before  the  joy  of  peace  must  come 
The  pains  of  purifying. 
God  give  us  grace 
Each  in  his  place 
To  bear  his  lot, 
And,  murmuring  not, 
Endure,  and  wait,  and  labor  ! 

The  president  then  addressed  the  audience  and  said  : 

Ladies  and  Gentlemen  :  The  words  of  the  Quaker  poet,  Whittier,  to 
which  you  have  just  listened,  could  not  be  sung  in  the  early  winter  of 
1861  in  the  army  of  the  Potomac  without  causing  military  interference. 
I  thank  God  those  words  can  be  sung  to-day  on  every  square  mile  of  the 
Republic.     [Applause.] 

I  now  have  the  honor  of  presenting  to  you  a  gentleman  born  in  the 
State  of  Maryland,  a  victim  of  the  slave  system,  who  struck  that  system 
heavy  blows,  and  who  has  won  a  name  in  the  cause  of  liberty  that  history 
will  record.  I  present  to  you  Frederick  Douglass.  [Long-continued 

This  fine  compliment  to  the  veteran  orator  of  the  colored  race  met  a 
hearty  response  from  the  large  assemblage.  The  speaker's  comparison  of 
the  centennial  anniversary  which  they  were  celebrating  and  the  one  to 


come  off  next  year  in  this  city — as  he  showed  that  while  the  Exposition 
in  1876  is  to  celebrate  nationality,  this  is  to  celebrate  universal  human- 
ity: his  allusion  to  the  distinguished  men  and  women  who  had  reached  out 
a  friendly  hand  to  the  negroes  when  they  escaped  from  slavery,  and  his 
declaration  of  the  negro's  wants — protection  to  his  rights  and  education ; 
his  powerful  description  of  the  condition  of  the  negro  to-day,  aided  by  his 
easy  and  graceful  style  of  delivery,  produced  a  wonderful  impression. 
He  said : 

My  Friends  and  Fellowt-Citizens  :  I  have  very  little  to  add  to  what 
has  been  already  said,  and  well  said,  upon  the  various  topics  suggested  by 
this  occasion.  In  fact,  I  would  gladly  escape  from  saying  anything,  and 
leave  the  remaining  time  to  be  occupied  by  addresses  from  other  speakers. 

When  called  upon  to  speak,  however,  I  have  always  found  it  easier  to 
comply  than  to  refuse  ;  more  easy  to  find  words  than  to  fit  my  words  to 
the  occasion ;  and  such  is  the  case  to-day.  Centennial  celebrations  are 
new  things  in  American  experience.  I  never  attended  one  before.  I  am, 
however,  encouraged  by  the  thought  that  when  new  things  are  attempted, 
a  certain  degree  of  awkwardness  is  expected  and  excused.  Thus  far,  I 
believe,  centennial  celebrations  have  been  monopolized  by  a  few  of  our 
oldest  religious  denominations.  In  their  hands  they  have  been  found  to 
be  not  only  very  pleasant  occasions,  but  very  useful.  They  quicken  zeal, 
strengthen  faith,  and  stimulate  exertion.  So  deeply  impressed  with  the 
good  effects  of  centennial  celebrations  are  some  of  our  colored  brethren 
that  they  think  now  of  having  one  annually,  and,  it  may  be,  quarterly. 

Thus  far,  however,  there  is  no  formulated  orthodox  pattern  for  the 
speeches  to  be  made  on  such  occasions,  and  each  man  is  therefore  left  to 
his  own  choice  as  to  manner  and  matter. 

One  thing  it  will  be  in  order  to  say  here,  at  the  outset :  I  am  in  favor  of 
centennial  celebrations  generally,  and  this  Abolition  Centennial  particu- 
larly. It  is  well  to  mark  and  observe  the  beginnings  of  great  and  impor- 
tant events  in  the  history  of  society  and  civilization.  All  such  occasions 
can  be  made  serviceable  to  human  progress,  welfare,  and  happiness. 

I  am  glad,  too,  that  this  great  and  growing  city  of  yours,  the  pride  of 
Pennsylvania,  and  perhaps  the  envy  of  some  of  its  neighbors,  is  soon  to 
be  the  scene  of  a  grand  and  memorable  Centennial  Celebration ;  one  that 
will  not  only  be  metropolitan  but  national,  and  reflect  glory  upon  our 
country  and  upon  the  world.  There  is  inspiration  in  the  very  thought  of 
such  an  assemblage.  Here,  on  American  soil,  in  this  old  city  of  the  De- 
claration of  Independence,  will  assemble  the  elite  of  all  nations,  kindreds, 


tongues,  and  peoples.  No  argument  is  needed  to  prove  that  such  a  coming 
together  will  tend  to  liberality,  peace,  and  brotherhood.  Here,  in  this 
place,  therefore,  it  is  in  order  to  bespeak  the  success  of  the  grand  Centen- 
nial which  is  to  come  after  the  one  we  are  now  holding.  Our  centennial 
celebration  has  attracted  but  little  attention  in  comparison  to  that  of  next 
year ;  and  yet  I  venture  to  claim  for  ours  a  higher,  broader,  and  more  sa- 
cred character  than  that  which  is  to  come  after  it.  The  Centennial  of 
Seventy-Six  stands  for  patriotism ;  ours  stands  for  philanthropy.  One 
stands  for  nationality  ;  the  other  stands  for  universal  humanity.  [Applause.] 
One  stands  for  what  is  transient ;  the  other  stands  for  what  is  permanent. 
Kingdoms,  nationalities,  principalities,  powers,  and  republics,  rise  and  fall ; 
appear  and  vanish  ;  but  the  great  principles  of  liberty,  justice,  and  humani- 
ty are  unchangeable  and  eternal.  [Renewed  applause.]  To  participate  in 
the  celebration  of  a  century  of  these  principles  is  a  sublime  privilege.  It 
is  something  of  which  a  man  may  proudly  tell  his  children,  for  it  honor- 
ably associates  his  name  with  the  grandest  names  and  the  noblest  cause 
of  modern  history. 

I  rejoice  to  see  on  this  platform,  Lucretia  Mott  [applause,]  Abby  Kelly 
Foster  [applause,]  and  the  men  and  women,  some  of  whom  reached  out 
to  me  a  friendly  hand  years  ago  when  I  made  my  escape  from  slavery 
and  came  here  to  Philadelphia,  and  then  to  New  England. 

In  listening  to  the  discourse  of  our  friend,  Dr.  Elder,  this  afternoon,  I 
felt,  as  you  did,  that  we  had  been  fortunate  in  the  sele6tion  of  our  histori- 
cal orator.  So  far  as  the  history  of  this  society  is  concerned,  he  has  swept 
the  century  and  left  but  little  for  others  to  say. 

While  I  am  a  man  of  the  present,  and  feel  deeply  interested  in  the 
works  of  to-day,  I  have  no  sympathy  with  those  who  despise  and  neglect 
the  origin  of  the  anti-slavery  movement  and  other  movements  among 
men  of  a  kindred  character.  All  truth,  whether  moral,  physical  or  histo- 
rical, is  important,  and  may  claim  inspiration. 

We  talk  of  the  dead  past ;  but  no  part  of  the  past  is  dead  or  indiffer- 
ent to  me.  I  rejoice  in  the  full-grown  man  of  anti-slavery,  but  I  do  not 
forget  the  cradle,  nor  the  terrible  struggles  which  have  intervened — the 
periods  of  weakness  and  strength,  of  infancy  and  maturity. 

I  have  somewhere  seen  a  doubt  expressed  that  there  is  any  such  thing 
as  human  progress.  Some  go  so  far  as  to  say  that  this  world  is  growing 
worse.  To  this  view— this  disheartening  view,  I  may  say — there  is  no 
more  impressive  contradiction  than  in  the  history  of  the  anti-slavery 
cause.  I  know  of  no  one  period  of  the  world's  age  for  which  I  would  be 
willing  to  exchange  the  present.     There  is  no  period  in  which  the  condi- 


tion3  of  existence  were  more  easy  and  happy  than  now.  Who  amongst  us 
wants  to  go  back  to  those  great  clays  of  religious  faith,  when  the  Church 
tore  men's  flesh  from  their  bones  with  iron  pincers,  and  roasted  them  alive 
in  fire  and  flame,  because  they  entertained  religious  views  different  from 
those  proclaimed  from  its  pulpit  ? 

There  are  those  who  would  tear  men  to-day,  if  they  could,  for  a  differ- 
ence in  religion.  They  call  hard  names  and  endeavor  to  excite  prejudice  ; 
but  we  must  all  rejoice  that  the  day  of  old-fashioned  religious  persecution 
has  now  gone  by.  The  day  will  come  when  persecution  on  account  of 
color  will  go  the  same  way.  No  one  can  well  doubt  this  when  he  looks 
back  over  the  history  of  the  abolition  movement,  and  observes  and  stu- 
dies its  gradual  rise  to  power  in  the  world.  Doctrines  of  human  liberty 
which  wTere  deemed  by  the  wise  and  prudent,  radical,  grotesque,  and  fa- 
natical one  hundred  years  ago,  have  come  to  be  accepted  as  entirely 
rational,  wise,  and  beautiful  in  our  day.     As  Lowyell  has  it : 

"Humanity  sweeps  onward  : 

Where  to-day  the  martyr  stands, 
To-morrow  crouches  Judas, 
With  the  money  in  his  hands." 

I  now  hold  in  my  hand  a  quaint  and  curious  old  volume,  I  will  not  say 
of  forgotten  lore,  for  I  think  it  is  probably  the  only  one  of  its  kind  now  in 
the  United  States.  I  have  summoned  it  from  the  dust  of  nearly  two  hun- 
dred years  to  assist  in  this  centennial  celebration. 

This  venerable  book  was  published  in  London,  in  the  year  of  grace  1GS0  : 
and  is  therefore  nearly  two  hundred  years  old.  It  was  presented  to  me 
by  Mr.  John  Gibson,  in  remembrance  of  my  visit  to  White  Haven,  Eng- 
land, nearly  thirty  years  ago.  I  thought  it  would  be  interesting  on  this 
occasion  for  three  reasons :  First,  because  of  its  antiquity ;  secondly,  be- 
cause it  very  strikingly  illustrates  the  gradual  dawn  of  anti-slavery  truth 
upon  the  world,  and  thirdly,  because  it  is  perhaps  among  the  earliest  of 
those  efforts  of  the  human  mind  wdiich  have  finally  put  an  end  to  slavery 
in  most  of  this  Western  world. 

The  history  of  the  book  itself  is  significant  and  instructive.  It  was 
written  by  a  pious  missionary  of  the  Church  of  England,  who  had  resi- 
ded both  in  Virginia  and  in  the  West  Indies,  and  of  course,  knew  much 
about  the  practical  workings  of  slavery,  both  upon  the  slave  and  the 
slave-master.  In  the  production  of  this  work  of  anti-slavery  tendency  he 
does  not  seem  to  have  been  moved  altogether  by  a  benevolent  thought  or 
purpose.     His  object  was  quite  as  much  to  shield  the  Church  from  oppro- 


brium  as  to  lift  the  down-trodden  slave  into  manhood.  In  his  introduc- 
tion he  gives  this  among  other  exciting  causes  of  his  writing.  He  says : 
"  A  petty  reformer  pamphlet  was  put  into  my  hands  by  an  officious 
Friend  or  Quaker,  upon  the  perusal  whereof  I  met  with  this  malicious 
but  crafty  iuvection  levelled  against  the  ministers : 

"  Who  made  you  ministers  of  the  Gospel  to  the  white  people  only,  and 
not  to  the  tawnys  and  blacks  also  ?"  and  he  adds  :  "  With  many  other 
of  the  like  insolent  queries."  This  proves  that  even  at  this  early  day 
the  Quakers  were  in  advance  of  their  neighbors,  and  that  they  knew  full 
well  how  to  reprove  the  heartless  injustice,  partiality,  and  hypocrisy  of 
the  Church. 

This  book  of  the  missionary,  Morgan  Godwin,  designed  to  shield  religion 
from  the  just  reproaches  of  the  friends  of  the  slave,  while  it  abounded 
in  many  excellent  reflections,  did  not  take  very  high  ground.  It  was  not 
a  direct  and  conscious  attack  upon  slavery.  The  idea  that  slavery  in  itself 
was  wrong  nowhere  gets  itself  expressed  in  these  pages.  Mr.  Godwin  simply 
endeavored  to  prove  that  it  was  not  a  sin  in  the  sight  of  God  to  baptize  a  negro 
and  give  him  religious  instruction  ;  and  to  show  that  these  were  not  preju- 
dicial to  the  right  of  the  masters.  But  low  as  was  this  ground  it  was  quite 
radical  doctrine  two  hundred  years  ago.  He  asked  neither  freedom,  cit- 
izenship, suffrage,  nor  equality  for  the  negro.  All  he  wanted  was  the 
right  to  put  a  little  religious  water  upon  him,  and  to  save  the  poor  fellow's 

He  disposed  of  the  black  man  in  a  very  simple  manner.  He  gave  his 
body  to  the  white  man  and  his  soul  to  the  Lord.  The  right  of  the  earth- 
ly master  was  as  good  to  his  part  of  the  property  as  the  right  of  the  heav- 
enly to  his.  But  the  black  man  himself  had  no  right.  When  he  looked 
for  his  body,  that  belonged  to  his  master,  and  when  he  looked  for  his  soul, 
that  belonged  to  the  Church  ;  and  being  unable  to  divide  himself  further, 
he  did  not  have  anything  left  for  himself,  and  was,  as  we  sometimes  say  in 
slang  phrase,  nowhere.  From  the  elevated  moral  plane  we  now  stand  up- 
on, it  appears  almost  incredible  that  the  negro's  right  to  baptism  and  re- 
ligious instruction  was  ever  denied  and  resisted  ;  but  such  is  the  fact.  We 
must  remember  that  the  gray  light  of  morning  is  not  the  mid-day  sun  in 
its  splendor,  and  that  the  age  of  Morgan  Godwin  was  not  the  age  of 
William  L.  Garrison,  Gerrit  Smith  and  Wendell  Phillips. 

Mr.  Douglass  gave  some  of  the  grounds  of  opposition  to  the  baptism  of 
the  negro.  It  tended  to  increase  his  dignity  and  importance.  It  made 
him  a  Christian,  and  thus  took  him  out  of  the  category  of  heathenism 
from  which  the  Bible  permitted  Christians  to  buy  and  hold  slaves.     It 


was  alleged  that  a  slave  was  not  a  fit  subject  for  baptism.  He  was  not  a 
free  moral  agent — had  no  will  of  his  own,  and  could  not  choose  his  own 
course  in  life.  On  any  consistent  theory  of  slavery  the  baptism  of  the 
negro  was  wrong  and  impolitic,  and  had  a  direct  tendency  to  impair  the 
value  of  the  slave  to  his  earthly  master,  and  this  was  the  view  taken  of 
the  measure  by  the  masters,  and  many  and  bloody  have  been  the  lashes  laid 
on  the  backs  of  negroes  for  allowing  themselves  to  be  baptized 

But  something  more  than  a  glance  at  the  past  is  due  from  us  on  this 
occasion.  It  is  a  glorious  fact  that  slavery  is  abolished  and  the  negro 
is  enfranchised.  A  hundred  years  of  labor  have  been  rewarded  by  vast  and 
wonderful  progress-  But  he  is  an  unwise  reformer  and  unwise  patriot  who 
now  considers  his  whole  duty  clone  and  his  work  for  freedom  and  country 
completed.  Xo  man  of  anti-slavery  instincts  can  now  look  out  upon  the 
moral  and  political  situation  of  this  country  without  seeing  danger  to  the 
results  obtained  by  the  immense  labor  and  suffering  of  long  years  of  agi- 
tation and  of  war  and  bloodshed.  Every  effort  should  now  be  made  to 
save  the  results  of  this  stupendous  moral  and  physical  contest- 

It  is  said  by  some  :  "  We  have  done  enough  for  the  negro."  Yes,  you 
have  done  a  great  deal  for  the  negro,  and,  for  one,  I  am  deeply  sensible 
of  it,  and  grateful  for  it.  But  after  all,  what  have  you  done?  We  were 
slaves — and  you  have  made  us  free — and  given  us  the  ballot.  But  the 
world  has  never  seen  any  people  turned  loose  to  such  destitution  as  were 
the  four  million  slaves  of  the  South.  The  old  roof  was  pulled  down  over 
their  heads  before  they  could  make  for  themselves  a  shelter.  They  were 
free!  free  to  huuger;  free  to  the  winds  and  rains  of  heaven  ;  free  to  the 
pitiless  wrath  of  enraged  masters,  who,  since  they  could  no  longer  control 
them,  were  willing  to  see  them  starve.  They  were  free,  without  roofs  to 
cover  them,  or  bread  to  eat,  or  land  to  cultivate,  and  as  a  consequence  died 
in  such  numbers  as  to  awaken  the  hope  of  their  enemies  that  they  would 
soon  disappear.  We  gave  them  freedom  and  famine  at  the  same  time. 
The  marvel  is  that  they  still  live.  What  the  negro  wants  is,  first,  protec- 
tion to  the  rights  already  conceded  by  law,  and,  secondly,  education. 
Talk  of  having  done  enough  for  these  people  after  two  hundred  years  of 
enforced  ignorance  and  stripes  is  absurd,  cruel,  and  heartless. 

Great  was  the  statesmanship  that  gave  the  black  man  the  ballot,  but 
greater  still  will  be  the  statesmanship  that  shall  give  him  ample  protection 
in  exercising  that  sacred  right,  and  education,  and  the  knowledge  to  use 
his  suffrage  in  such  a  manner  as  to  preserve  his  own  liberty  and  the  high- 
est welfare  of  the  Government  of  this  Republic.  To-day,  iu  the  South, 
the  school-house  is  burned.     To-day,  in  Tennessee,  Lucy  Haydon  is  called 


from  an  inner  room  at  midnight  and  shot  down  because  she  teaches  col- 
ored children  to  read.  To-day,  in  New  Orleans  and  in  Louisiana,  and  in 
parts  of  Alabama,  the  black  man  scarcely  dares  to  deposit  the  votes  which 
you  gave  him  a  right  to  deposit  for  fear  of  his  life.  We  want  your  voices 
again  ;  we  want  disinterested  laborers  as  of  old  ;  we  want  Abby  Kellys 
rising  up  in  the  wake  of  the  Abby  Kellys  of  other  days ;  we  want  the 
Anna  Dickinsons  with  a  moral  purpose  to  stir  this  country  anew  in  be- 
half of  humanity  ;  we  want  to  carry  the  standard,  as  the  old  Garrisonians 
carried  it  in  1840,  outside  of  the  Republican  party,  and  outside  of  the 
Democratic  party;  we  want  this  society  to  celebrate  its  second  centennial, 
if  need  be. 

Some  of  my  friends  in  England  used  to  send  me  money  to  help  me 
publish  my  paper,  and  when  slavery  was  abolished  I  was  glad  to  send 
them  word  :  '•  I  release  you  now,  my  friends,  from  sending  me  any  more 
assistance,  either  for  my  paper  or  for  the  beuefit  of  fugitive  slaves."  They 
wrote  back :  "  Douglass,  we  do  not  want  to  be  released ;  We  want  you  to 
go  on  ;  we  want  to  help  you."  I  say  that  we  want  this  same  spirit  to  take 
the  field  now  in  behalf  of  this  race.  We  need  you,  my  friends,  almost  as 
much  as  ever. 

But  I  am  here  talking  too  long,  and  I  will  not  detain  you  longer.  I  see 
here  my  friend  and  your  friend — and  you  know  he  is  here — Charles  C. 
Burleigh  [applause] ;  my  friend  Robert  Purves  [applause]  ;  and  other 
friends  upon  whom  you  can  call.  I  know  you  want  to  hear  as  many 
voices  as  you  can  during  the  hour,  and  I  thank  you  for  the  attention  with 
which  you  have  listened  to  my  remarks. 

Upon  concluding,  Mr.  Douglass  was  the  recipient  of  rounds  of  applause. 


The  chairman  (Vice-President  Wilson)  then  said: 

On  an  occasion  like  this  our  hearts  are  full  of  tender  memories.  We 
are  grateful  to  those  whose  voices,  labors,  and  pens  have  advanced  our 
cause.  We  are  grateful  to  the  private  soldier  who  laid  down  his  life  in 
the  storm  of  battle  for  the  cause  of  the  black  man.  We  are  grateful  to 
the  memory  of  Abraham  Lincoln  [applause],  and  we  should  not  forget 
that  this  day  is  the  tenth  anniversary  of  his  assassination.  And  among 
those  to  whom  we  should  be  grateful,  our  hearts  should  go  out  in  gratitude 
to  that  noble  class  of  American  women  who  during  the  last  forty  years 
have  worked  and  spoken  for  the  cause.     [Applause.]     I  propose  now  to 


present  to  you  one  of  the  most  venerable  and  noble  of  the  American 
women,  whose  voice  for  forty  years  has  been  heard  and  tenderly  touched 
many  noble  hearts.  Age  has  dimmed  her  eye  and  weakened  her  voice, 
but  her  heart,  like  the  heart  of  a  wise  man  and  a  wise  woman,  is  yet  young. 
I  present  to  you  Lucretia  Mott. 

[This  announcement  was  greeted  with  renewed  manifestations  of  wel- 

Lucretia  Mott,  upon  coming  forward,  said  : 

I  came  here  without  the  least  expectation  of  saying  a  word,  understand- 
ing the  meeting  to  be  at  the  call  of  the  Society  for  Promoting  the  Aboli- 
tion of  Slavery,  as  organizad  long  before  the  Anti-Slavery  Society,  headed 
by  William  Lloyd  Garrison.  In  this,  the  first  society,  women  were  not 
expected  to  take  part.  I  therefore,  should  feel  very  much  out  of  place 
were  there  not  a  union  at  this  time  of  both  societies.  Then  again,  owing 
to  a  severe  cold,  my  hoarseness  is  such  that  I  cannot  be  heard  probably 
many  feet  from  me ;  but  my  interest  in  this  cause  makes  me  willing,  at 
the  suggestion  of  your  chairman,  to  occupy  a  few  moments 

The  speaker,  after  expressing  the  hope  that  what  had  been  said  would 
have  the  effect  to  stimulate  her  hearers  to  greater  zeal  in  the  support  of 
schools  for  the  education  of  people  of  color,  and  in  the  many  similar  direc- 
tions in  which  they  had  been  engaged,  proceeded  to  correct  an  erroneous 
statement  that  Elizabeth  Heyriek  was  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Friends. 

Referring  to  what  had  been  said  coucerning  the  gratitude  of  the  negro, 
she  gave  some  instances  from  her  personal  experience,  and  remarked  that 
much  yet  remained  to  be  done  in  order  to  put  a  stop  to  outrages  upon  the 
colored  people  such  as  were  still  perpetrated  iu  the  South.  She  referred 
to  the  moral  influence  of  the  anti-slavery  sentiments  in  bringing  about  the 
emancipation  of  the  colored  race. 

The  next  exercise  was  the  rendition  by  the  Hutchinson  Family  of  the 

verses  beginning : 

"  It  is  coming  up  the  steep  of  time, 

And  this  whole  world  is  growing  brighter." 


The  chairman  then  introduced  the  next  speaker  in  these  words :  "  I 
now  present  Charles  C.  Burleigh,  who  gave  youth,  talent,  and  courage  to 
the  cause." 

Mr.  Burleigh  came  forward  and  said  : 

I  see  that  this  platform  is  draped  with   the  stars  and   stripes   of  the 


Union,  and  in  that  I  see  one  signal  token  of  the  change  that  has  been 
wrought  in  this  country  by  the  proclamation  of  anti-slavery  truth  ;  for 
now  there  is  nothing  in  that  emblem  to  cause  an  anti-slavery  meeting  to 
shrink  from  it.  The  time  was  when  this  flag  floated  over  four  millions  of 
slaves  and,  under  it,  the  military  power  of  the  nation  stood  pledged  to 
keep  those  slaves  in  bondage.  To-day  the  military  power  of  the  nation 
stands  pledged  to  defend  the  right  of  the  emancipated  slave  not  only  to  be 
a  man  but  to  be  a  co-sovereign  of  the  Republic,  and  to  share  with  the 
proudest  of  his  white  brethren  iD  the  exercise  of  all  the  rights  which  belong 
to  the  citizen  of  this  great  Republic. 

We  are  celebrating  the  one-hundredth  anniversary  of  a  society,  but  for 
whose  existence,  with  that  of  similar  organizations,  it  would  have  been 
impossible  for  this  natiou,  without  exposing  itself  to  taunts  and  reproaches, 
to  celebrate  the  centennial  anniversary  of  its  freedom  in  the  presence  of 
the  nations  of  the  earth.  We  can  now  stand  as  a  free  people  in  the  pres- 
ence of  other  nations,  and  will  not  hear  the  reproach  that  over  this  land  a 
bastard  Freedom  waves  her  fustian  flag  in  mockery  ove^r  slaves.  Some- 
thing therefore  has  been  achieved  by  this  society,  not  merely  for  the  rais- 
ing up  of  the  chattel  to  the  condition  of  a  man,  and  the  man  to  the  con- 
dition of  a  co-sovereign,  but  for  the  entire  nation  and  for  the  progress  of 

The  speaker  went  on  to  argue  that  in  all  this  the  might  of  the  truth, 
which  was  the  agency  whereby  the  victory  was  achieved,  was  plainly 
visible.  This  truth  had  been  mighty,  not  only  in  enlisting  men  under  the 
banner  of  an  unpopular  cause,  and  strengthening  them  to  cast  behind  ease 
and  interest,  and  honor  and  reputation,  and  stand  in  the  fore-front  of  the 
battle  against  outrage  and  persecution,  but  in  constraining  even  the 
enemies  of  the  cause  to  do  its  service,  and  its  adversaries  to  accomplish  its 
work.  In  rebelling  against  the  Government,  and  making  slavery  the 
corner  stone  of  the  empire,  the  slave  power  not  only  forced  upon  the 
nation  the  necessity  of  crushing  rebellion  in  order  to  save  itself,  but  it 
robbed  itself  of  the  shield  behind  which  it  had  sheltered  through  all  the 
preceding  years.  It  could  no  longer  plead  its  constitutional  or  legal 
rights  after  it  had  risen  in  rebellion  against  the  very  authority  under 
which  it  claimed  to  exercise  its  guarantees  of  protection.  The  speaker 
argued  in  proof  of  his  position  that  the  truth  proclaimed  by  the  anti-sla- 
very champions  of  the  country  had  not  only  rallied  around  it  the  friends 
of  justice  and  humanity,  but  had  converted  their  enemies  into  instruments 
for  achieving  its  own  victories. 



Mr.  Purvis,  referring  to  the  chairman's  notice  that  the  meeting  would 
adjourn  to  re  assemble  at  Bethel  church  in  the  evening,  said  it  was  doubt- 
ful whether  Vice-President  Wilson  would  be  present  then,  and  added : 
"  I  wish  to  say,  yielding  to  the  impulse  of  the  instant,  and  as  the  certain 
representative  of  millions  in  the  country,  that  we  are  more  indebted  to  the 
able  chairman  and  to  his  distinguished  colleague  who  now  enjoys 
his  reward  in  Heaven,  than  to  any  men  in  the  national  councils  for  all 
that  now  enables  the  colored  race  to  feel  that  they  have  a  country  to  love, 
and  a  flag  which  they  can  conscientiously  honor  and  defend." 

The  remarks  were  received  with  applause.  Bishop  Campbell  pronounced 
the  benediction  and  the  meeting  adjourned  to  Bethel  church  at  7^  o'clock. 


The  Centennial  celebration  was  continued  according  to  adjournment,  at 
Bethel  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  Sixth  above  Lombard.  A  large  au- 
dience were  gathered  before  the  hour.  There  were  on  the  platform,  Vice 
President  Wilson,  Frederick  Douglas,  Bishop  Campbell,  C.  C.  Burleigh, 
Mrs.  F.  E.  W.  Harper,  Rev.  G.  H.  Ball,  of  New  York,  Rev.  J.  W.  Dun- 
gee  of  Richmond,  Va,  Prof.  J.  M.  Langston,  John  Oliver  of  Richmond, 
Va,  and  others.  Bishop  Campbell,  presiding,  desired  Rev.  Dr  Ball  to  ask 
a  blessing.  The  Hutchinson  Family  sang.  A  letter  from  Bishop  D.  A. 
Payne  was  read,  encouraging  the  Society  not  to  desist  from  their  effort* 
until  Slavery  no  longer  existed  anywhere.  Mrs.  F.  E.  W.  Harper  was 
introduced.     She  said  : 

The  great  problem  to  be  solved  by  the  American  people,  if  I  under- 
stand it,  is  this —  whether  or  not  there  is  strength  enough  in  democracy, 
virtue  enough  in  our  civilization,  and  power  enough  in  our  religion  to  have 
mercy  and  deal  justly  with  four  millions    of  people  but  lately   translated 


from  the  old  oligarchy  of  slavery  to  the  new  commonwealth  of  freedom : 
and  upon  the  right  solution  of  this  question  depends  in  a  large  measure 
the  future  strength,  progress,  and  durability  of  our  nation.  The  most  im- 
portant question  before  us  colored  people  is  not  simply  what  the  Demo- 
cratic party  may  do  against  us  or  the  Republican  party  do  for  us  ;  but 
what  are  we  going  to  do  for  ourselves  ?  "What  shall  we  do  towards  develop- 
ing our  character,  adding  our  quota  to  the  civilization  and  strength  of  the 
country,  diversifying  our  industry,  and  practicing  those  lordly  virtues  that 
conquer  success,  and  turn  the  world's  dread  laugh  into  admiring  recogni- 
tion ?  The  white  race  have  yet  work  to  do  in  making  practical  the  politi- 
cal axiom  of  equal  rights,  and  the  Christian  idea  of  human  brotherhood ; 
but  while  I  lift  mine  eyes  to  the  future  I  would  not  ungratefully  ignore 
the  past.  One  hundred  years  ago  and  Africa  was  the  privileged  hunting- 
ground  of  Europe  and  America,  and  the  flag  of  different  nations  hung  a 
sign  of  death  on  the  coasts  of  Congo  and  Guinea,  and  for  years  unbroken 
silence  had  hung  around  the  horrors  of  the  African  slave  trade.  Since 
then  Great  Britain  and  other  nations  have  wiped  the  bloody  traffic  from 
their  hands,  and  shaken  the  gory  merchandise  from  their  fingers,  and  the 
brand  of  piracy  has  been  placed  upon  the  African  slave  trade.  Less  than 
fifty  years  ago  mob  violence  belched  out  its  wrath  against  the  men  who 
dared  to  arraign  the  slaveholder  before  the  bar  of  conscience  and  Christ- 
endom. Instead  of  golden  showers  upon  his  head,  he  who  garrisoned  the 
front  had  a  halter  around  his  neck.  Since,  if  I  may  borrow  the  idea,  the 
nation  has  caught  the  old  inspiration  from  his  lips  and  written  it  in  the 
new  organic  world.  Less  than  twenty-five  years  ago  slavery  clasped  hands 
with  King  Cotton,  and  said  slavery  fights  and  cotton  conquers  for  Ameri- 
can slavery.  Since  then  slavery  is  dead,  the  colored  man  has  exchanged 
the  fetters  on  his  wrist  for  the  ballot  in  his  hand.  Freedom  is  king  and 
Cotton  a  subject. 

It  may  not  seem  to  be  a  gracious  thing  to  mingle  complaint  in  a  season 
of  general  rejoicing.  It  may  appear  like  the  ancient  Egyptians  seating 
a  corpse  at  their  festal  board  to  avenge  the  Americans  for  their  short- 
comings when  so  much  has  been  accomplished.  And  yet  with  all  the 
victories  and  triumphs  which  freedom  and  justice  have  won  in  this 
country,  I  do  not  believe  there  is  another  civilized  nation  uuder  Heaven 
where  there  are  half  so  many  people  who  have  been  brutally  and 
shamefully  murdered,  with  or  without  impunity,  as  in  this  republic  within 
the  last  ten  years.  And  who  cares?  Where  is  the  public  opinion  that 
has  scorched  with  red-hot  indignation  the  cowardly  murderers  of  Vicks- 
burgh  and  Louisiana  ?     Sheridan  lifts  up  the  vail  from  Southern  society, 


and  behind  it  is  the  smell  of  blood,  and  our  bones  scattered  at  the  grave's 
mouth  ;  murdered  people  ;  a  White  League  with  its  "  covenant  of  death 
and  agreement  with  hell."  And  who  cares?     What  city  pauses  one  hour 
to  drop  a  pitying  tear  over  these  mangled  corpses,  or  has  forged  against  the 
perpetrator  one  thunderbolt  of  furious  protest  ?     But  let  there  be  a  sup- 
posed or  real  invasion  of  Southern   rights  by  our  soldiers,  and   our  great 
commercial  emporium  will  rally  its  forces  from  the  old  man  in  his  classic 
shades,  to  clasp  hands  with  "  Dead  Rabbits"  and  "  Plug-uglies"  in  protesting 
against  military  interference.    What  we  need  to-day  in  the  onward  march 
of  humanity  is  a  public  sentiment  in  favor  of  common  justice  and  simple 
mercy.     We  have  a  civilization  which  has  produced  grand  and  magnifi- 
cent results,  diffused  knowledge,  overthrown  slavery,  made  constant  con- 
quests over  nature,  and  built  up  a  wonderful  material  prosperity.     But 
two  things  are  wanting  in  American  civilization — a  keener  and  deeper, 
broader  and  tenderer  sense  of  justice — a  sense  of  humanity,  which  shall 
crystalize  into  the  life  of  the   nation  the  sentiment   that  justice,  simple 
justice,  is  the  right,  not  simply  of  the  strong    and   powerful,  but  of  the 
weakest  and  feeblest  of  all  God's  children  ;  a  deeper  and  broader  human- 
itv,  which  will  teach  men  to  look  upon  their  feeble  brethren  not  as  vermin 
to  be  crushed  out,  or  beasts  of  burden  to  be  bridled  and  bitted,  but  as  the 
children  of  the  living  God  ;  of  that  God  whom  we  may  earnestly  hope  is 
in  perfect  wisdom  and  in  perfect  love  working  for  the  best  good  of  all. 
Ethnologists  may  differ  about  the  origin  of  the  human  race.   Huxley  may 
search  for  it  in  protoplasms,  and  Darwin  send  for  the  missing  links,  but 
there  is  one  thing  of  which  we    may  rest  assured  ;  that  we   all  come 
from  the  living  God  and  that  He  is  the  common  Father.     The  nation 
that  has  no  reverence  for  man  is  also  lacking  in  reverence  for  God  and 
needs  to  be  instructed.     As  fellow-citizens,  leaving  out  all  humanitarian 
views — as   a  mere  matter  of  political  economy  it   is  better  to  have  the 
colored  race  a  living  force  animated  and  strengthened  by  self-reliance  and 
self-respect,  than  a  stagnant  mass,  degraded  and  self-condemned.     Instead 
of  the  North  relaxing  its  efforts  to  diffuse  education  in  the  South,  it  be- 
hooves us  for  our  national  life,  to  throw  into  the  South  all  the  healthful 
reconstructing  influences  we  can  command.     Our  work  in  this  country  is 
grandly  constructive.     Some  races  have  come  into  this  world  and  over- 
thrown and  destroyed.     But   if  it  is   glory  to  destroy,  it  is  happiness  to 
save ;  and  Oh  !  what  a  noble  work  there  is  before  our  nation  !  Where  is 
there  a  young  man  who  would  consent  to  lead  an  aimless  life  when  there 
are  such  glorious  opportunities  before   him  ?  Before  our  young   men  is 
another  battle — not  a  battle  of  flashing  swords  and  clashing  steel — but  a 


moral  warfare,  a  battle  against  ignorance,  poverty,  and  low  social  condi- 
tion. In  physical  warfare  the  keenest  swords  may  be  blunted  and  the 
loudest  batteries  hushed  ;  but  in  the  great  conflict  of  moral  and  spiritual 
progress  your  weapons  shall  be  brighter  for  their  service  and  better  for 
their  use.  In  fighting  truly  and  nobly  for  others  you  win  the  victory  for 

Give  power  and  significance  to  your  own  life,  and  in  the  great  work  of 
upbuilding  there  is  room  for  woman's  work  and  woman's  heart.  Oh, 
that  our  hearts  were  alive  and  our  vision  quickened,  to  see  the  grandeur 
of  the  work  that  lies  before.  We  have  some  culture  among  us,  but  I 
think  our  culture  lacks  enthusiasm.  We  need  a  deep  earnestness  and  a 
lofty  unselfishness  to  round  out  our  lives.  It  is  the  inner  life  that  de- 
velops the  outer,  and  if  we  are  in  earnest  the  precious  things  lie  all 
around  our  feet,  and  we  need  not  waste  our  strength  in  striving  after  the 
dim  and  unattainable.  Woman,  in  your  golden  youth  ;  mother,  binding 
around  your  heart  all  the  precious  ties  of  life, — let  no  magnificence  of  cul- 
ture, or  amplitude  of  fortune,  or  refinement  of  sensibilities,  repel  you 
from  helping  the  weaker  and  less  favored.  If  you  have  ampler  gifts,  hold 
them  as  larger  opportunities  with  which  you  can  benefit  others.  Oh,  it  is 
better  to  feel  that  the  weaker  and  feebler  our  race  the  closer  we  will  cling 
to  them  than  it  is  to  isolate  ourselves  from  them  in  selfish,  or  careless 
unconcern,  saying  there  is  a  lion  without.  Inviting  you  to  this  work  I  do 
not  promise  you  fair  sailing  and  unclouded  skies.  You  may  meet  with 
coolness  where  you  expect  sympathy;  disappointment  where  you  feel 
sure  of  success  ;  isolation  and  loneliness  instead  of  heart-support  and  co- 
operation. But  if  your  lives  are  based  and  built  upon  these  divine  certi- 
tudes, which  are  the  only  enduring  strength  of  humanity,  then  whatever 
defeat  and  discomfiture  may  overshadow  your  plans  or  frustrate  your 
schemes,  for  a  life  that  is  iu  harmony  with  God  and  sympathy  for  man 
there  is  no  such  word  as  fail.  And  in  conclusion,  permit  me  to  say,  let 
no  misfortunes  crush  you  ;  no  hostility  of  enemies  or  failure  of  friends 
discourage  you.  Apparent  failure  may  hold  in  its  rough  shell  the  germs 
of  a  success  that  will  blossom  in  time,  and  bear  fruit  throughout  eternity. 
What  seeemed  to  be  a  failure  around  the  Cross  of  Calvary  and  in  the  gar- 
den, has  been  the  grandest  recorded  success. 

Elizur  Wright  was  then  introduced.     He  said  : — 

I  have  noticed  that  Elizur  Wright,  junior,  has  been  announced  as  one 
of  the  speakers  on  this  occasion.  No  such  person  is  now  in  existence,  and 
there  has  not  been  in  twenty  years.  I  remember  there  was  one,  and  how, 
with  his  young  wife  and  child,  he  came  to  this  city  in  1803  to  attend  the 


formation  of  a  new  anti-slavery  society,  a  sort  of  junior  to  the  one  whose 
birth  is  to-day  celebrated.  He  then  related  the  occurrence  of  a  grand 
dinner  in  this  city,  at  which  his  wife  felt  honored  at  being  led  to  the  table 
by  a  .sea  captain  who  was  colored. 

There  is  in  all  society  an  upper  and  a  lower  stratum.  But  they  are  not 
regulated  by  color  or  nationality.  The  distinction  belongs  to  character 
and  culture. 

Mr.  Wright  then  adverted  to  the  Civil-Rights  Bill,  which  he  said  would 
meet  no  trouble  in  the  South.  Two  years  ago  he  took  a  journey  through 
the  South,  and  the  best  car  on  a  train  on  which  he  rode  Mas  half  filled 
with  negroes — well-dressed,  fine-appearing — and  the  white  people  who 
sat  in  the  car  did  not  feel  at  all  disgraced.  It  is  true  there  are,  in  low 
society,  cases  of  outrage,  but  they  are  the  exception.  The  civil-rights 
bill  will  go  into  effect. 

After  urging  the  duty  of  the  coming  generation  to  work  for  the  eleva- 
tion and  complete  freedom  of  the  African  race,  Mr.  Wright  read  two 
paragraphs  describing  a  discussion  in  Green-street  Church,  Boston,  in 
L833,  between  a  Mr.  Findlay  and  the  speaker,  the  three  questions  of  which 
were  :  Whether  the  colonization  of  the  negroes  was  not  beneficial  to  the 
African-;?  Whether  it  does  not  tend  to  encourage  slavery?  and  whether 
the  only  hope  for  the  abolition  of  slavery  does  not  lie  in  propagating  the 
doctrine  of  immediate  emancipation  ? 

At  the  conclusion  of  Mr.  Wright's  remarks,  Mr.  Purvis  said  :  "  that  in 
this  very  Bethel  church  in  1817,  the  iirst  protest  was  madeagain-r  the  colo- 
nization scheme,  and  his  honored  father-in-law  presided  on  that  occasion." 

Professor  John  M.  Langston  was  introduced.  He  commenced  by  re- 
marking that  he  could  hardly  understand  why  he  should  have  been  hon- 
ored by  au  invitation  to  attend  so  grand  a  commemoration.  He  had  no 
merits  and  had  performed  no  work  that  justified  him  in  intruding  upon 
their  patience.  And  yet  he  would  not  represent  the  class  whose  represen- 
tative he  was  unless,  in  their  name,  he  testified  to  the  inestimable  debt 
hat  is  owed  by  them  and  will  be  owed  by  their  posterity — by 
the  whole  population  of  the  Union,  regardless  of*  race,  of  learning,  of  con- 
dition ;  by  the  population  of  the  world,  aunually  holding  its  way  more  in 
accordance  with  the  principles  of  freed  mi,  of  general  education  and  popu- 
lar government  and  so  with  more  and  higher  success, — the  great  debt  of 
gratitude  that  is  owed  by  all  now  living  in  this  country  and  by  many  in 
other  lands,  and  that  will  be  due  from  men  every  year,  to  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Abolition  Society  for  their  staunch  efforts  in  securing  universal 
freedom.  (Applause). 


The  history  of  the  Association,  owing  to  its  objects  and  achievements, 
sweep  in  an  interest  that  is  not  confined  to  any  class  :  an  interest  that  is 
not  confined  to  any  people,  and  whose  scope  and  consequences  cannot  be 
foretold  by  human  inspiration.  It  affects  the  emancipation  of  a  whole 
race ;  and  in  that  it  touches  the  progress  and  character  of  all  who  are 
brought  in  contact  with  that  race,  the  forms  of  government  over  the  world 
aud  the  world's  progress  in  all  departments.  There  was  a  recent  time  in 
American  history  when  no  man  in  all  its  length  and  breadth,  could  read 
the  Declaration  of  Independence  and  say  that  he  possessed  all  of  his  civil 
and  political  liberties.  Garrison  could  not  speak  in  New  Orleans,  nor 
could  the  silver-tongued  Phillips  address  an  audience  south  of  Mason  and 
Dixon's  line.  Nor  was  it  expedient  for  John  C.  Calhoun  to  address  his 
arguments  in  Independence  Hall,  or  for  Davis  and  Yulee  and  Mason  to 
propound  theirs  in  Faneuil  Hall.  Speech  was  itself  in  thrall,  and  bound 
to  the  section  in  which  it  found  voice.  When  Garrison  and  Phillips  had 
been  invited  to  speak  in  Cincinnati,  they  were  counseled  by  their  friends 
not  to  do  so.  There  was  clanger  that  the  mobs  of  Covington  and  Cincin- 
nati would  assassinate  them  publicly  ;  and  it  is  notorious  that  the  opposing 
arguments  that  reached  Washington  from  the  North  and  from  the  South, 
advanced  no  further  in  either  direction.  This  impugned  and  belied  the 
very  freedom  declared  in  the  Declaration  and  Constitution ;  and  made 
both  the  mockery  of  Europe.  The  contradiction  is  reconciled  ;  the  taunt 
is  silenced  ;  speech  is  legally  free  and  protected  over  all  the  Union,  and  the 
Pennsylvania  Abolition  Society  have  done  more  than  any  other  agency — 
more  than  all  other  agencies  combined  'to  vitalize  the  Constitution  and 
give  being  to  the  Declaration.  This  society  fougbt  for  the  glowing  asser- 
tion of  all  the  centuries,  that  mankind  are  born  free  and  equal  and  are 
endowed  with  inalienable  right  to  life,  liberty  and  the  pursuit  of  happi- 
ness. They  kept  the  contrast  between  the  declaration  and  its  practice  in 
a  clear  light.  They  repeated  the  assertion  and  reasserted  it.  They  argued 
the  justice  with  the  very  facts  and  reasons  that  had  been  presented  to  the 
Congress  by  whom  the  Declaration  was  framed.  Undisturbed  by  ridicule, 
unchecked  by  hostility,  undaunted  by  persecution,  they  kept  the  law  in 
the  van  of  the  fight;  they  sustained  it  by  reserves  of  humane  reason  ;  by 
appeals  to  national  strength  and  welfare,  and  growth,  and  influence,  and 
wealth;  they  disseminated  the  truth  in  churches,  at  the  polls,  in  lyceums,  by 
the  press ;  they  were  unanswerable  because  their  claim  was  founded  in  equity, 
and  recognized  in  religion,  and  had  ineradicable  place  in  the  great  muniment 
of  national  being.  They  appealed  to  the  individual  conscience  as  well  as 
to  pride,  patriotism,  piety  and  interest,  and  they  won,  and  now  celebrate  a 


victory  immeasurably  greater  than  that  of  Yorktown  or  Waterloo  or 
Marathon.  Those  were  the  victories  of  nation  over  nation,  or  at  the  ut- 
most of  a  principle  of  limited  application.  We  celebrate  the  successful 
battle  of  the  grandest  principle  in  human  organization  ;  that  is  confined 
to  no  raca,  limited  to  no  country,  cramped  by  no  restriction,  but  is  as 
broad  as  the  world,  as  applicable  as  humanity  itself  and  as  enduring  as 
time.  The  sentiment  which  elected  Abraham  Lincoln  was  contained  in 
an  address  delivered  before  the  Pennsylvania  Abolition  Society  by  Benja- 
min Rush,  one  of  its  earliest  and  most  honored  members.  It  was :  "  Free- 
dom and  Slavery  cannot  long  exist  together  !  "     (Applause). 

Ladies  and  Gentlemen  of  the  Abolition  Society  !  Those  who  see  the 
American  citizens  of  African  descent  one  hundred  years  hence,  will  be 
proud  of  them,  and  convinced  that  the  great  century  struggle  that  won 
their  enfranchisement  was  worth  infinitely  more  than  it  cost.  We  are 
now  leaving  politics.  We  have  gained  through  them  the  rights  and  op- 
portunities they  conferred,  that  could  be  secured  in  no  other  way.  We 
are  devoting  ourselves  to  learning  and  industry ;  the  attainment  of  wealth 
and  manufacture  of  character.  We  shall  never  leave  our  home.  There 
are  but  two  facts  to  be  recognized.  We  are  here.  The  White  race  are 
here.  Both  share  the  same  rights  ;  make  and  obey  the  same  laws  ;  strug- 
gle for  progress  under  the  same  conditions.  The  logical  conclusion  of 
our  birthright  and  of  our  proclaimed  and  perfected  equality  before  the 
law  is  that  we  shall  remain,  and  remaining  strive  with  equal  advantages 
with  our  white  fellow-citizens  for  our  own  good  and  the  nation's  welfare. 

Prof.  Langston's  speech  was  received  with  great  applause. 

Abby  Kelley  Foster  said  that  she  did  not  intend  to  make  a  speech, 
for  she  could  not.  She  merely  wished  to  congratulate  the  Society  on  its 
grand  work  in  lifting  up  the  oppressed  and  down-trodden.  The  Ameri- 
can Abolition  Society  and  its  hundreds  of  branches  died  when  they  had 
seen  the  political  disabilities  of  the  colored  race  removed,  and  the  Penn- 
sylvania Society  is  the  only  one  now  existing. 

Henry  Wilson,  Vice  President  of  the  United  States,  was 
introduced.  One  word  he  said  of  many  expressed  duriug  the  session  met 
his  most  hearty  response.  It  was  that  which  called  the  people  to  prepare 
to  sustain  the  government  of  which  they  are  now  a  part.  For  more  than 
two  years  there  has  been  much  said  about  public  men  being  a  commodity. 
They  are  criticised  for  every  act  and  the  vilest  motives  are  assigned  for 
all  they  do  or  refuse  to  do.  Now  for  twenty  years  at  least,  the  public 
men  of  this  country  have  been  far  ahead  of  the  average  of  those  whom 


they  represent ;  and  they  are  so  still.  The  slave  power  in  this  country 
did  not  go  down  because  the  popular  demand  had  changed.  When  the 
rebellion  broke  out,  a  great  majority  of  the  people  of  the  country  were 
not  anti-slavery  in  their  feelings  and  were  very  far  from  being  abolition- 
ists. There  were  however  among  them  those  who  enlightened,  formed  and 
directed  sentiment. 

The  review  of  only  a  few  months  shows  by  the  losses  how  many  great 
men  have  been  taken  from  our  ranks.  Within  the  last  thirty  months 
William  H.  Seward,  who  rendered  incalculable  service  in  behalf  of 
emancipation,  has  been  taken  away.  Chief  Justice  Chase,  who  rendered 
great  and  grand  services  notwithstanding  some  mistakes,  has  gone  too. 
Horace  Greeley,  whose  services  to  the  cause  through  his  influential  journal 
cannot  be  overestimated,  has  gone.  Gone  too  is  Charles  Sumner,  who 
defended  the  same  cause  with  unsurpassed  eloquence  ;  and  gone  because 
he  defended  it.  Gerritt  Smith,  associated  with  the  struggle  from  its  birth 
and  untiring  and  resolute  in  sheltering  it,  has  gone.  And  so  has  Abra- 
ham Lincoln,  in  whom  all  purpose  and  all  desire  concentrated  for  a 
supreme  effort,  and  through  whom  they  won  their  whole  demand.  And 
Lincoln  and  Sumner  and  Seward  paid  with  their  lives  for  their  advocacy. 

Let  us  now,  succeeding  these  pioneers,  emulate  their  conduct  and  dis- 
charge our  different  duties  as  resolutely  and  wisely  and  perseveringly. 
Let  us  step  to  the  very  verge  to  raise,  improve  and  elevate  the  colored 
men  of  America,  whether  they  are  in  the  North  or  the  South.  This  is 
our  duty,  and  is  doubly  urgent  owing  to  what  our  predecessors  and  com- 
panions have  won.  We  start  with  the  determination  that  the  colored 
race  shall  have  all  and  the  same  rights  and  privileges  that  the  white 
enjoy.  We  start  with  the  determination  that  the  millions  of  whites 
who  were  kept  in  ignorance  and  poverty  and  subjection  equal  to  slavery, 
from  the  Delaware  to  the  Rio  Grande,  because  the  colored  were  slaves, 
shall  be  educated  and  enfranchised.  Slavery  is  dead,  but  its  consequences 
are  not  dead,  and  must  ba  wholly  vanquished.  We  are  to  conquer  these 
as  we  did  their  seed.  We  must  struggle  for  education.  We  must  create 
free  schools  for  white  and  black  in  all  of  the  South  and  everywhere. 
True  policy  requires  us  to  assist  in  rebuilding  the  broken  industries  of  the 
South.  In  a  purely  Christian  spirit  we  must  maintain  that  equal  rights 
belong  to  all  American  citizens,  and  that  any  opposition  is  as  treasonable 
to  republican  government  as  advocating  a  monarchy.  We  must  animate, 
viraliz3  and  enforce  all  that  we  have  added  to  the  Constitution,  and  give 
it  efficacy  as  extensive  as  that.  We  must  change  wrong  opinions.  We 
must  concede  what  can  be  conceded,  generously.     We  must  hold  to  and 


defend  the  essentials  with  a  firmness  that  will   not  surrender  evea  the 
shadow  of  right  and  justice. 

Vice  President  Wilson's  speech  was  received  with  frequent  applause 
and  applause  followed  it 

Frederick  Douglass  succeeded  Mr.  Wilson.  He  paid  a  glowing  eulogy 
to  Abraham  Lincoln  and  divided  it  with  Henry  Wilson.  He  also  touched 
briefly  upon  the  issues  of  the  recent  elections  in  Connecticut  and  New 
Hampshire,  as  they  concerned  the  social  equality  of  the  races.  His  con- 
clusion was  that  as  the  negro  procured  freedom  from  political  necessity. 
so  he  must  procure  education  for  social  necessity.  He  was  followed 
by  Robert  Purves  in  a  few  extemporaneous  remarks  that  criticised  the 
republican  party  for  having  neglected  to  keep  the  promL-es  male  in  1872 
and  only  offered  a  substitute  that  is  inefficient  and  worthless.  The  Hut- 
chinson Family  sang,  and  the  long  exercises  of  the  evening,  patiently 
followed  by  a  great  assemblage  who  testified  their  interest  by  their  atten- 
tion and  their  appreciation  by  their  applause,  were  ended  with  the  bene- 

Another  celebration  speedily  follows  this.  Its  lights  are  seen,  its  music 
is  heard,  its  approach  is  near.  It  will  collect  all  the  races  of  all  the 
States  ;  all  the  records,  and  attainments  and  hopes  of  all  Americans,  in 
its  great  embrace.  It  will  draw  contributions  and  representatives  and 
spectators  from  every  nation  on  earth  ;  and  will  go  out  in  its  effects  as 
far,  and  for  all  time  to  commend  the  uses  of  free  government.  That  in- 
cludes the  celebration  of  the  Pennsylvania  Abolition  Society  as  a  constit- 
uent, And  no  constituent  is  more  mighty.  It  brought  back  the  admin- 
istration of  the  nation  to  harmony  with  the  national  constitution.  It 
made  the  constitution  opeiative.  It  accomplished  the  freedom  that  is 
necessary  for  American  being  and  doing:  it  unlocked  the  door  to  finer 
humanities  and  greater  progress  for  all  everywhere.  It  turned  out  and 
locked  out  the  barbarism  of  slavery  from  the  civilization  of  the  centurv 
and  of  the  world.  The  celebration  whose  record  is  closed  was  not  marred 
by  the  abuse  of  the  old  slave-holders  nor  by  partizan  feeling.  There 
were  no  untimely  or  inappropriate  demands  made.  The  kindest  feelings 
of  a  great  jubilee  reigned  supreme  and  penetrated  the  whole;  and  the  oc- 
casion was  employed  to  impress  the  need  of  education,  of  virtue,  of  indus- 
try, of  all  the  virtues  that  make  a  nation's  greatness  and  retain  it.  It 
was  in,  in  character  and  in  every  pxrticular  as  great  and  bril- 
liant a  contribution  as  any  the  Centennial  will  hold,  and  there  can  be  no 
display  than  that  will  not  radiate  new  light  from  the  colors  of  this  anni- 


Such  in  its  motives;  such  in  its  membership;  such  in  its  pacific  and 
lawful  and  philanthropic  labors;  such  in  its  hop°s  and  failures,  in  its 
counsels  and  trials,  was  the  Abolition  Society  of  the  United  States.  It 
was  organized  when  the  political  independence  of  the  nation  had  just  been 
won,  and  all  men  rejoiced  in  political  freedom.  It  was  organized  with 
the  co-operation  of  Franklin,  and  the  countenance  of  his  most  eminent  co- 
temporaries.  It  formulated  an  eternal  truth  that  had  been  incorporated 
in  the  immortal  declaration,  that  "  All  men  are  born  free  and  equal,  and 
endowed  with  inalienable  rights."  It  had  European  countenance,  and 
through  all  its  century  of  alternating  hope  and  depression,  and  in  the  very 
instant  of  appareut  final  defeat,  it  had  the  consciences  of  mankind  sub- 
scribing its  truth  and  jus-tice. 

The  bloodshed  of  an  unp-ovoked  and  wanton  civil  war  preceded  its  final 
success,  and  its  victory  was  hallowed  bythe  murder  of  that  martyr  President, 
whose  great  Proclamation  broke  every  shackle  and  freed  every  slave. 
The  victory  surged  forward  beyond  any  dream  of  the  most  visionary  at 
the  beginning.  The  victims  of  more  than  a  century  of  slavery,  telling 
their  numbers  by  millions,  were  not  only  freed  but  enfranchised.  Their 
gallant  conduct  in  the  field  through  the  war;  their  self-sacnficing  and  con- 
stant support  in  civil  life;  the  order,  the  industry,  the  charity,  the  toler- 
ance they  showed  in  all  situations,  and  their  zeal  for  learning  and  active 
lab  >rs,  commanded  the  great  Constitutional  Amendment,  by  which  the 
freedmen  were  made  citizens,  aud  invested  with  all  the  rights  and  all  the 
responsibilities  of  their  white  fellow-citizens.  The  Centennial  of  the 
Abolition  Society  thus  celebrated  the  abolition  of  the  slave* ;  the  proof 
that  they  deserved  for  personal  and  patriotic  merit  what  they  received 
through  political  justice,  invoked  by  the  rebellion  of  their  former  masters. 
And  it  was  brightened  by  the  great  efforts  that  have  been  and  are  being 
made  by  these  new  citizens  in  every  State,  to  educate  themselves  and  their 
children,  to  maintain  schools,  to  erect  churches;  to  acquire  property,  and 
command  through  desert,  the  equal  esteem  of  all  classes,  and  the  same 
social  and  political  standing,  irrespective  of  color,  that  the  African  race 
have  in  France. 

The  Centennial  was  made  more  august  by  similar  consequences,  indi- 
rectly won  through  its  labors,  in  other  lands.  At  the  very  instant  when, 
siart:ug  in  and  from  the  great  attempt  of  this  society  here,  slavery  was 
outlawed  in  the  Union  ;  Russia  put  an  end  to  serfdom  in  her  lands  ;  and 
Spain  moderated  her  rigor  in  Porto  Rico ;  and  white  and  black  fought  to- 


gether  for  independence  in  Cuba  ;  and  Brazil  declared  a  system  of  gradual 
emancipation,  and  human  bondage  over  all  the  world  was  limited  to  a  few 
countries,  with  evidence  of  its  early  and  total  suppression.  The  light  and 
warmth  that  irradiated  the  celebration,  perfect  in  tone  and  pervasive  and 
unqualified  as  they  were,  from  all  parts  of  the  Union,  were  augmented 
from  all  parts  of  the  world;  and  it  was  possible  to  apprehend  the  highest 
elevation  of  citizens  of  African  descent  in  the  United  States,  lately  slaves, 
concurreotly  with  the  spread  of  emancipation  to  the  African  and  other 
races,  in  every  portion  of  the  world,  and  the  absolute  reign  of  freedom  for 
the  first  time  in  the  world's  history. 

Such,  so  brilliant  and  so  great  in  its  history  and  direct  and  consequen- 
tial attainments  was  the  Abolition  Society.  It  contained  as  pure,  and  in- 
telligent, and  earnest,  and  pious  souls  as  any  society  ever  had.  It  won  a 
great  fight  against  the  greatest  odds.  It  transmitted  its  uses  to  other 
lands,  and  saw  them  succeeding.  And  it  wisely  employed  the  instant  of 
victory,  to  plan  new  and  nobler  labors  for  the  elevation  of  those  to  whom 
it  gave  freedom.  This  is  the  work  devolved  upon  the  shoulders  of  these 
members  who  live,  and  she  children  of  members  who  have  their  reward. 
The  political  power  of  the  Union,  its  theory  of  government,  and  the  ne- 
ities  of  every  State,  require  a  general  assistance  for  this  labor,  that  has 
been  partly  given.  The  next  Centennial  will  be  national  and  unopposed, 
and  hearty— when  the  descendants  of  the  late  slaves  are  no  longer  freed- 
men— but  fully  clothed  with  every  attribute  of  manhood,  and  invested 
with  all  the  rights  and  considerations  of  citizenship. 



Whilst  the  Society  has  felt  the  deepest  interest  in  the  educational  work, 
means  have  not  been  so  abundant  as  to  enable  them  to  respond  to  the 
pressing  claims  of  Schools  and  Colleges,  further  than  now  and  then  a  case. 
Aid,  however,  has  been  extended  to  some  extent  to  the  following  schools 
and  colleges  embraced  in  the  subjoined  list. 

Waterford,  Va. 
Janesville,  N.  C. 
Mount  Pisgah,  Md. 
Woodlawn,  Va. 
St.  Mary's,  Pa. 
Rikersville,  S.  C. 
Gum  Springs,  Va. 
Gainsville,  S.  C. 
Bidwell,         " 
Lenairs,  " 

Falls  Church,  Va. 
Waldo,  " 

Manassas,  " 

Lively  Oak,       " 
Fairfield,  " 

Goldsboro',  N.  C. 
Beaufort,  S.  C. 
Heathsville,  Va. 
Sumpter,  S.  C. 
Jacksonville,  Fla. 
Laurel  Factory,  Md. 
Blackville,  S.  C. 
Frogmore,      " 
St.  Helena,    " 
Midway,         " 
Camden,  N.  J. 
Mount  Pleasant,  S.  C 
Columbia,  Ga. 
Chambersburg,  Pa. 
Richmond,  Va. 
Leesburg,      " 

Clark's  Chapel,  Ga. 

Alexandria,  Va. 

Centreville,    " 

Warren,  " 

Sharpsburg,  Md. 

Painter's  Post,  Va. 

Brentsville,  " 

Ship's  Island,  Miss. 

Grand  View,  Va. 

Oberlin,  Ohio. 

Broad  Mountain,  Va. 

Milford,  Del. 

Barnwell,  S.  C. 

Howard  University,  D.  C. 

Wilberforce     "  Ohio. 

Hampton  Institute,  Va. 

Albany  "  Ohio. 

Maryville,      "  Tenn. 

Bridgewater  Orphans'  School,  Pa. 

Maylandville       "  "         " 

Colored  Orphans'  Home,  D.  C. 

Orphan  Home,  S.  C. 

Moral  Reform  Home,  N.  J. 

Brown  St.  Public  School,  Pa. 

Bethany  "  "  " 

Race  St.  Friends'  Freedmen's  Association,  Pa. 

Arch    "         "  "  " 

C.  S.  Schaeffer's  Mission,  Va. 

Penna.  Freedmen's  Ass'n,  Pa. 

Several  Students  at  Lincoln  University. 




BY    THE    NAME    OF 


Promoting  the  Abolition  of  Slavery,  and  for  the  Relief  of  Free  Negroes 
unlawfully  held  in  bondage,  and  for  improving  the 

condition  of  the  African  Race. 

Section  1.  Whereas,  a  voluntary  Society  has  for  some  years  subsisted 
in  this  State,  by  the  name  and  title  of  "  The  Pennsylvania  Society  for 
Promoting  the  Abolition  of  Slavery,  and  the  Relief  of  Free  Negroes  un- 
lawfully held  in  Bondage,''  which  has  evidently  co-operated  with  the  views 
of  the  Legislature,  expressed  in  the  act  of  the  General  Assembly  of  this 
Commonwealth,  passed  the  first  day  of  March,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord, 
one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty,  entitled  "  An  Act  for  the  gradual 
abolition  of  slavery,"  and  a  supplement  thereto,  passed  the  twenty-ninth 
day  of  March,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and 
eighty-eight,  entitled  "  An  Act  to  explain  and  amend  an  act,  entitled  an 
act  for  the  gradual  abolition  of  slavery  ;" 

And  whereas,  this  said  Society  have  lately  extended  their  plan  so  far 
as  to  comprehend  within  their  intentions  the  improving  the  condition  as 
well  of  those  negroes  who  now  are,  or  hereafter  shall  become  free,  by  the 
operation  of  the  said  acts,  or  otherwise,  and  their  posterity  ;  and  have,  by 
their  petition  to  this  House,  prayed  to  be  created  and  erected  into  a  body 
politic  and  corporate,  for  the  purpose  of  increasing  their  ability  to  be 
useful  in  the  several  matters  aforesaid. 



Section  2.  Be  it  therefore  enacted,  and  it  is  hereby  enacted,  by  represent- 
atives of  the  freemen  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania,  in  General  As- 
sembly met,  and  by  the  authority  of  the  same,  That  the  present  members  of 
the  said  Society,  viz. 

Dr.  Benjamin  Franklin,  James  Pemberton,  Jonathan  Penrose,  Thomas 
Harrison,  James  Starr,  William  Lippincott,  John  Thomas,  Benjamin 
Hornor,  Samuel  Richards,  John  Evans,  John  Todd,  James  Whiteall, 
Edward  Brooks,  Thomas  Armat,  John  Warner,  Samuel  Davis,  Thomas 
Bartow,  Robert  Evans,  Robert  Wood,  Seymour  Hart,  Richard  Hum- 
phreys, Robert  Towers,  Joseph  Moore,  Joseph  Russell,  William  Zane, 
Israel  Whelen,  Samuel  Baker,  Richard  Price,  Charles  Jervis,  Israel 
Hallowell,  Clement  Biddle,  Amos  Wickersham,  Pattison  Hartshorne, 
Nathan  Sellers,  David  Sellers,  Isaac  Parrish,  Zachariah  Jess,  Dr.  Ben- 
jamin Rush,  John  Field,  Richard  Jones,  AVilliam  Poyntell,  Andrew 
Carson,  Philip  Price,  John  Hunt,  junr.,  Norris  Jones,  John  Morton, 
Thomas  Penrose,  Thomas  Poultney,  Thomas  Eddy,  Isaac  Weaver,  jun., 
Caleb  Attmore,  Joseph  Budd,  Abraham  Sharpless,  Isaac  Massey,  James 
Lewis,  Thomas  Shoemaker,  Robert  Morris,  Jeremiah  Paul,  Thomas  Savery, 
Francis  Bailey,  Thomas  Shields,  George  Eddy,  John  Morrison.  John 
Morris,  Joseph  Clark,  Zachariah  Poulson,  junr.,  Thomas  Parker,  William 
Graham,  Thomas  Rogers,  John  Poultney,  Isaac  Bonsall,  Joseph  Cruk- 
shank,  John  Jacobs,  Nathan  Boys,  William  Ashby,  Jacob  Trasel,  William 
Jackson,  Charles  Crawford,  Ellis  Yarnall,  John  Olden,  Tench  Cose, 
Jonathan  Pugh,  John  Reece,  Jacob  Shoemaker,  junr  ,  William  M'llhen- 
ney,  Caleb  Lownes,  John  Letchworth,  William  West,  Isaac  Pearson, 
Burton  Wallace,  Francis  Johnson,  Joseph  Sharpless,  Thomas  Wistar, 
Joseph  Lownes,  Benjamin  Say,  Joseph  Anthony,  Caspar  W.  Haines, 
Joseph  Bacon,  George  Rutter,  David  Lownes,  Bartholomew  Wistar, 
George  Fox,  William  T.  Franklin,  William  Rawle,  James  Trenchard, 
Conrad  Hanse,  Samuel  Coates,  Richard  Wells,  Sharp  Delany,  Jonathan 
Willis,  junr.,  Joseph""  Gibbons,  Samuel  Pancoast,  Kearney  Wharton,  Dr. 
James  Hutchinson,  Charles  Williams,  John  Claypoole,  John  Dowers, 
Hilary  Baker,  George  Latimer,  Andrew  Geyer,  James  Read,  Peter 
Woglom,  John  Kaign,  John  Todd,  junr.,  Philip  Benezet,  Joseph  James, 
Dr.  Caspar  Wistar,  Dr.  Samuel  P.  Griffitts,  Thomas  Fitzgerald,  Stephen 
Maxfield,  Philip  Price,  junr.,  Israel  Pleasants,  Mordecai  Churchman, 
Thomas  Annesly,  Benjamin  W.  Morris,  John  M'Cree,  George  Richie, 
James  Olden,  John  Hutchinson,  George  Wilson,  Jacob  Parke,  Thomas 
Lawrence,  Dr.  John  Foulke,  Jesse  Waterman,  James  Trimble,  Dr.  Wil- 
liam Rogers,  Dr.  Nicholas  Collin,  Samuel  M.  Fox,  Benjamin  Shoemaker, 
Joseph  P.  Norris,  George  Roberts,  Jeremiah  Parker,  Abraham  Liddon, 
John  Bleakley,  Joseph  Inskeep,  Robert  Wain,  Richard  Parker,  John 
Starr,  Nathan  Allen  Smith,  Thomas  Norton,  Robert  Taggart,  Samuel 
Emlen,  junr.,  William  Kid,  Dr.  John  Andrews,  Zebulon  Potts,  Samuel 
Kinsby,  Nathan  Field,  Daniel  Trotter,  Benjamin  Taylor,  James  Smith, 
junr.,  Caleb  Carmalt,  Robert  Roberts,  William  Chancellor,  Thomas  For- 
rest, Jonathan  Jones,  Ebenezer  Breed,  George  Aston,  Thomas  Proctor, 
George   Davis,  John  Smilie,  Thomas  Palmer,  Anthony  Felix  Wuibert, 

Matthew  Hale,  Richard  Peters,  Joseph  Thomas,  Thomas  Ross,  Isaac 
Buckbee.  Joshua  Gilpin,  Dr.  Amos  Gregg,  Girard  Vogels,  Richard  Riley, 
Samuel  Claphamsou,  Zaccheus  Collins,  Henry  Hale  Grayham,  John  Ely, 
Richard  H.  Morris,  John  Staplir,  junr.,  Daniel  May,  Andrew  Johnston, 
S.  Barnett,  William  Welsh,  Isaiah  Harr,  Charles  Lukins,  James  Smith, 
J.  Morris,  Ambrose  Updegraff,  Peter  Mondirf,  Thomas  Fisher,  Robert 
Kammersly,  John  Smith,  William  Webb,  John  Roberts.  John  Kittera, 
William  Brisband,  William  Gibbons,  Samuel  Updegraff,  Caleb  Johnson, 
Robert  Verree,  Dr.  John  Chapman.  Alexander  Addison.  Samuel  Red- 
wood, Rees  Cadwallader,  Samuel  Jackson,  Dr.  John  Luther,  Dr.  John 
Story,  Benjamin  Wright  and  Eli  Lewis,  all  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania; 

And  Joseph  Shottwell,  junr.,  David  Cooper,  Samuel  Allison,  Thomas 
Redman,  Thomas  Stokes,  John  Wistar,  Thomas  Clements.  Joseph  Sloan, 
Ebenezer  Howel,  Clement  Hall,  James  Jess.  Benjamin  Wright,  Richard 
Wain,  Stacy  Biddle,  Hezekiah  Hughes,  Thomas  Githen,  all  of  the  State  of 
New  Jersey ; 

The  honorable  John  Jay,  and  Matthew  Clarkson,  of  the  State  of  New 
York ; 

John  Boggs,  Caleb  Kirk,  and  Warner  Mifflin,  of  the  State  of  Dela- 
ware ; 

Zebulon  Hollingsworth,  John  Richardson,  Woolman  Hickson,  John 
Feigle,  Joseph  Wilkinson,  and  John  Needles,  of  the  State  of  Maryland; 

Samuel  Hopkins,  Benjamin  Forster,  Euos  Hitchcock,  Benjamin  West, 
Moses  Brown,  William  Patton,  Samuel  Vinson,  Thomas  Robinson,  and 
Jonathan  Easton,  of  the  State  of  Rhode  Island  ; 

John  Saunders,  George  Tegal,  and  George  Corbyn,  of  the  State  of 
Virginia  ; 

Noah  Webster,  Thomas  Gain,  and  Benjamin  West,  of  the  State  of 

Capel  Loft,  David  Barclay,  Granville  Sharp.  Dr.  Richard  Price,  James 
Phillips,  Thomas  Day.  Dr.  Thomas  Clarkson,  the  right  Hon.  William 
Pitt,  Dr.  John  Coaklev  Lettsora,  William  Dillwyn,  Robert  Robinson, 
and  William  Hollick,  of  the  Kingdom  of  Great   Britain; 

L'Abbe  Raynal,  Le  Marquis  de  la  Fayette,  J.  P.  Brissot  de  Warville, 
Charton  de  Terriere,  and  Francis  Clery  du  Pont,  of  the  Kingdom  of 
France ; 

And  such  other  person  and  persons  as  shall  be  hereafter  elected  and 
chosen  in  the  manner  hereinafter  mentioned,  and  their  successors,  be  and 
they  are  hereby  created  and  declared  to  be  one  body  politic  and  corporate 
in  deed  and  iu  law,  by  the  name,  style  and  title  of  "  The  Pennsylvania 
Society  for  Promoting  the  Abolition  of  Slavery,  and  for  the  Relief  of  Free 
Negroes  unlawfully  held  in  Bondage,  and  for  improving  the  condition  of 
the  African  Race,"  and  by  the  same  name  shall  have  perpetual  succession, 
and  shall  be  able  to  sue  and  to  be  sued,  implead,  and  be  answered  unto  in 
all  courts  of  law  and  equity,  and  to  make,  have  and  use  one  common  seal 
to  give  authenticity  to  their  acts,  deeds,  records  and  proceedings,  and  the 


same  at  their  pleasure  to  break,  alter,  change  and  make  anew,  and  to 
purchase,  take  and  hold  by  gift,  grant,  demise,  bargain  and  sale,  will  and 
devise,  bequest,  testament,  legacy,  or  by  any  other  mode  of  conveyance, 
any  lands,  tenements,  goods,  chattels,  or  estate,  real,  personal  or  mixed,  or 
choses  in  action,  not  exceeding  at  any  one  time  the  yearly  value  of  fifteen 
hundred  pounds  lawful  money  of  Pennsylvania  in  the  whole ;  and  the 
same  to  give,  grant,  bargain,  sell,  demise,  convey  and  assure  to  others,  for 
the  whole  or  any  lesser  estate  than  they  have  in  the  same,  in  such  manner 
and  form  as  the  said  Society  at  their  future  meetings  hereinafter  described 
shall  order  and  direct ;  and  to  apply  the  rents,  issues,  and  profits,  income 
and  interest  of  such  estate,  and  the  monies  arising  from  the  sales  of  any 
parts  thereof,  to  the  uses,  ends,  intents  and  purposes  of  their  institution, 
according  to  the  rules,  orders,  regulations,  and  constitution  of  the  said 
Society,  now  in  force,  or  which,  according  to  the  provisions  hereinafter 
made,  shall  from  time,  to  time  be  declared  and  ordained,  touching  and 
concerning  the  same,  as  fully  and  effectually  as  any  natural  person  or 
body  politic  and  corporate  within  this  State,  by  the  constitution  and  laws 
of  this  commonwealth,  can  do,  and  perform  the  like  things. 

Section  3.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  and  it  is  hereby  enacted  by  the  au- 
thority aforesaid,  That  the  officers  of  the  said  Society  shall  consist  of  one 
President,  two  Vice-presidents,  two  Secretaries,  one  Treasurer,  who  shall 
also  be  the  keeper  of  the  common  seal,  and  so  many  counsellors  as  the 
said  Society  shall  from  time  to  time  think  proper  to  appoint  and  elect,  all 
of  whom  shall  be  chosen  annually  by  ballot  of  a  majority  of  votes  of  the 
whole  number  of  members  who  shall  be  present  at  the  quarterly  meeting 
hereinafter  mentioned,  which  shall  be  held  ou  the  first  second  day  of  the 
week  (called  Monday)  in  the  first  month  (called  January)  in  every  year 
after  the  passing  of  this  act,  or  at  such  other  time,  and  at  such  place,  as 
the  said  Society  shall,  by  their  rules  and  orders,  direct  and  appoint ;  and 
of  such  committees,  for  carrying  into  execution  the  designs  of  the  said  in- 
stitution, as  the  said  Society  heretofore  have,  appointed,  and  hereafter  at 
any  of  their  quarterly  or  special  meetings  shall  agree  to,  and  appoint  in 
the  manner  and  form  to  be  hereafter  agreed  upon. 

Section  4.  And  be  it  further  enacted  by  the  aidhority  aforesaid,  That  the 
said  society  shall  and  may  hold  four  quarterly  meetings  in  every  year,  at 
such  place  and  hour  of  the  day  as  they  shall  agree  unto,  on  every  the  first 
second  day  of  the  week  (called  Monday)  in  every  the  first,  fourth,  seventh 
and  tenth  months,  called  January,  April,  July,  and  October,  in  every 
year  forever  hereafter,  and  may  adjourn  the  said  quarterly  meetings  from 
time  to  time ;  and  shall  and  may  hold  such  other  special  meetings  as  the  So- 


ciety  by  their  rules  and  orders  shall  direct  and  appoint,  and  shall  and 
may  hold  such  other  meetings  as  the  president  0f  the  said  Society  shall 
think  necessary  to  call,  or  one  of  the  vice-presidents  of  the  said  Society,  at 
the  request  of  any  six  members  thereof  shall  call,  of  which  special  meet- 
ings notice  shall  be  given  in  two  of  the  public  newspapers  printed  in  the 
city  of  Philadelphia,  at  least  two  days  before  the  time  of  meeting ;  at  any 
of  which  quarterly  or  special  meetings,  or  adjournments  thereof,  it  shall 
and  may  be  lawful  for  the  said  Society,  or  so  many  of  them  as  shall  meet, 
by  a  majority  of  voices  to  agree,  to  ordain  and  to  establish  such  by-laws, 
rules,  orders,  and  regulations  as  they  shall  judge  necessary,  for  the  well- 
ordering  and  governing  the  said  Society;  and  for  the  well  managing  the 
affairs  thereof,  and  to  appoint  such  and  so  many  committees,  consisting  of 
such  of  their  members  as  they  shall  think  necessary,  to  superintend  the 
different  departments  of  duties  already  undertaken  by  the  Society  hereto- 
fore subsisting,  or  hereafter  to  be  undertaken  by  the  Society,  hereby  es- 
tablished,  and  to  receive  the  reports  of  such  committees,  and  take  such 
order  thereon,  as  to  them  shall  seem  proper;  and  to  fix  and  ascertain  the 
terms  and  conditions  upon  which  new  members  shall  be  admitted  in  the 
-aid  Society,  and  upon  which  former  members  may  be  removed,  and  to 
define  and  ascertain  the  duties  of  the  several  officers  and  committees  of 
the  said  Society,  and  to  enforce  the  same  by  such  reasonable  fines  and 
forfeitures  to  be  imposed  on  delinquents,  as  they  shall  think  proper,  and 
for  want  of  obedience  in  any  «>f  the  members,  committees,  or  officers  of 
the  said  Society,  to  remove  and  displace  them,  and  others  to  appoint,  and 
rally  to  agree  to,  ordain,  and  establish  all  such  bye-laws,  rules,  orders 
and  regulations  for  the  well  governing  of  the  said  Society,  for  perpetua- 
ting a  succession  of  its  officers  and  performing  the  duties  they  have 
undertaken,  or  shall  undertake  as  the  said  Society,  at  any  of  their  said 
quarterly  meetings  or  special  meetings  or  adjournments  thereof,  shall  by 
a  majority  of  voices  determine  to  he  right  and  proper.  Provided  always 
nevertheless,  That  no  real  or  personal  estate  above  value  of  sixty  dollars 
shall  be  disposed  of,  or  the  right  and  estate  of  the  Society  therein  shall  be 
lessened  or  altered,  for  the  less,  nor  any  bye-law,  rule,  order  or  regulation 
of  the  said  Society  enacted,  repealed  or  altered,  nor  any  sum  of  money 
appropriated  to  any  new  use  not  before  agreed  upon  by  any  of  the  said 
meetings  or  committees  to  be  appointed,  unless  the  president  or  one  of  the 
vice-presidents,  and  at  least  twenty  members  shall  be  present  at  such  meet- 
ing, and  a  majority  of  those  present  shall  agree  to  the  same. 

Ami  provided  also,  That  all  and  every  the  bye-laws,  rules,  orders  and 
regulations  already  enacted   and  made,  or  hereafter  to  be  enacted  and 


made  by  the  said  Society,  be  reasonable  in  themselves  and  not  contradic- 
tory to  the  constitution  and  laws  of  this  commonwealth. 

Section  5.  And  be  it  further  enacted  by  the  authority  aforesaid,  That  the 
constitution  of  the  Pennsylvania  Society  for  promoting  the  abolition  of 
slavery,  and  for  the  relief  of  free  negroes  unlawfully  held  in  bondage,  as 
enlarged  at  a  meeting  of  the  said  Society  held  at  Philadelphia,  the  twenty- 
third  day  of  April,  in  the  year  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty- 
seven,  and  all  rules,  orders,  regulations  and  proceedings  made  and  had  by 
the  said  Society  in  pursuance  thereof,  be  and  they  are  hereby  declared  to 
be  in  full  force  and  binding  upon  the  said  Society,  by  this  act,  created  and 
incorporated,  until  the  same  shall  be  repealed,  altered  and  annulled  at  a 
quarterly  or  special  meeting  or  adjournment  thereof,  to  be  held  in  pur- 
suance of  this  act,  as  fully  and  effectually  as  if  the  same  were  to  be  origi- 
nally adopted  by  the  said  Society,  hereby  incorporated  and  created  at  one 
of  their  said  meetings, 

Section  6.  And  be  it  further  enacted  by  the  authority  aforesaid,  That 
until  the  next  election  which  shall  be  held  by  the  said  Society  in  pursu- 
ance of  this  act,  the  said  Benjamin  Franlclin  shall  be  the  president  there- 
of, the  said  James  Pemberton  and  Jonathan  Penrose  shall  be  the  vice- 
presidents  thereof,  the  said  Benjamin  Rush  and  Caspar  Wistar  shall  be 
the  secretaries  thereof,  the  said  James  Starr  shall  be  the  treasurer  thereof, 
and  William  Lewis,  Myers  Fisher,  William  Rawle,  and  John  D.  Coxe 
shall  be  the  counsellors  thereof,  and  that  all  and  every  the  committee  and 
committees  heretofore  appointed  by  the  said  Society  for  promoting  the 
abolition  of  slavery  and  for  the  relief  of  free  negroes  unlawfully  held  in 
bondage,  shall  be  and  continue  to  be  the  officers  and  committees  of  the 
Society  hereby  created  and  incorporated,  and  shall  report  to,  and  account 
with  the  same,  in  the  same  manner  as  they  would  have  done  to  the  former 
Society  in  case  this  act  had  not  passed. 

Section  7.  And  be  it  enacted  by  the  authority  aforesaid,  That  this  act 
shall  in  all  things  be  construed  in  the  most  favorable  and  liberal  manner 
to  and  for  the  said  Society,  in  order  to  effectuate  the  privileges  hereby  to 
them  granted ;  and  that  no  misnomer  of  the  said  corporation  in  any  deed, 
will,  testament,  gift,  grant,  demise,  or  other  instrument  of  contract,  or  con- 
veyance shall  vitiate  or  defeat  the  same,  if  the  said  corporation  shall  be 
sufficiently  described  to  ascertain  the  intent  of  the  party  or  parties  to  give, 
devise,  bequeath,  convey,  or  assure  to,  or  contract  with  the  said  corpora- 
tion hereby  created  by  the  name  aforesaid.  Nor  shall  any  non-user  of  the 
said  privileges  hereby  granted  create  any  forfeiture  of  the  same,  but  the 
same  may  be  exercised  by  the  said  corporation,  and  notwithstanding  their 


failure  to  meet  at  any  of  the  times  herein  specified,  to  hold  their  annual 
elections,  the  officers  elected  at  any  of  the  said  annual  elections  shall  con- 
tinue to  hold  and  exercise  their  offices  until  others  shall  be  duly  elected 
to  succeed  them,  at  some  future  meeting  of  the  said  corporation. 

Signed  by  order  of  the  House, 


Enacted  into  a  Law  at  Philadelphia,  on  Tuesday,  the  eighth  day  of 
December,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and 

Peter  Zachary  Lloyd, 

Clerk  of  the  General  Assembly. 





Promoting  the  Abolition  of  Slavery,  Etc. 

As  revised  and  adopted  Ninth  mo.,  (September)  29th,  1859. 

It  having  pleased  the  Creator  of  the  world  to  make  of  one  flesh  all  the 
children  of  men — it  becomes  them  to  consult  and  promote  each  others' 
happiness,  as  members  of  the  same  family,  however  diversified  they  may 
be,  by  color,  situation,  religion  or  different  states  of  society.  It  is  more 
especially  the  duty  of  those  persons  who  profess  to  maintain  for  themselves 
the  rights  of  human  nature,  and  who  acknowledge  the  obligations  of 
Christianity,  to  use  such  means  as  are  in  their  power,  to  extend  the  bless- 
ings of  freedom  to  every  part  of  the  human  race:  and  in  a  more  particu- 
lar manner,  to  such  of  their  fellow-creatures  as  are  entitled  to  freedom  by 
the  laws  and  constitutions  of  any  of  the  United  States,  and  who,  notwith- 
standing, are  detained  in  bondage  by  fraud  or  violence.  From  a  full 
conviction  of  the  truth  and  obligation  of  these  principles — from  a  desire 
to  them,  wherever  the  miseries  and  vices  of  slavery  exist,  and  in 
humble  confidence  of  the  favor  and  support  of  the  Father  of  Mankind, 
the  subscribers  have  associated  themselves  under  the  title  of  the  "  Penn- 
sylvania Society  for  promoting  the  Abolition  of  Slavery,  and  the  Kelief 
of  Free  Negroes  unlawfully  held  in  Bondage,  and  for  improving  the  con- 
dition of  the  African  Eace." 

For  effecting  these  purposes,  they  have  adopted  the  following  constitu- 
tion : 

I.  The  officers  of  this  Society  shall  consist  of  a  president,  two  vice-pre- 
sidents, two  secretaries,  a  treasurer,  a  librarian  and  twelve  counsellors, 
viz.,  four  from  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  and  the  remaining  eight  from 
such   other   places  as  the  Society  may  from  time  to  time  determine.     A 


board  of  education  of  thirteen,  an  acting  committee  of  seven,  and  a  com- 
mittee on  property,  of  three  members,  all  of  whom  shall  be  chosen  annu- 
ally by  ballot,  on' the  last  Fifth-day  called  Thursday,  in  the  month  called 

II.  The  president,  or  in  his  absence  one  of  the  vice-presidents,  shall 
preside  in  all  the  meetings,  and  subscribe  all  the  public  acts  of  the  Society. 
The  president,  or  in  his  absence,  either  of  the  vice-presidents,  shall  more- 
over have  the  power  of  calling  a  special  meeting  of  the  Society  whenever 
he  shall  judge  proper.  A  special  meeting  shall  likewise  be  called  at  any 
time,  when  six  members  of  the  Society  shall  concur  in  requesting  it. 

III.  The  secretaries  shall  keep  records  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Society, 
and  shall  correspond  with  such  persons,  and  societies.  as  may  be  judged 
necessary  to  promote  the  views  and  objects  of  the  institution. 

IV.  The  Treasurer  shall  keep  all  the  monies  and  securities  belonging 
to  the  Society,  and  shall  pay  all  orders  signed  by  the  president  or  one  of 
the  vice-presidents,  and  countersigned  by  one  of  the  secretaries,  and  also 
such  orders  as  are  referred  to  in  Articles  VII.  and  VIII.  which  orders 
shall  be  his  vouchers  for  his  expenditures. 

He  shall  have  charge  of  the  corporate  seal,  and  affix  the  same  when 
required  by  the  Society.  He  shall  report  quarterly  the  balance  in  the 
treasury,  to  the  credit  of  each  account,  and  annually  render  a  full  state- 
ment of  his  receipts  and  expenditures.  He  shall,  before  entering  upon 
his  office,  give  a  bond  of  not  less  than  eight  hundred  dollars,  for  the 
faithful  discharge  of  his  duties. 

V.  The  librarian  shall  have  charge  of  and  keep  a  catalogue  of  the  books 
and  papers  of  the  corporation,  and  see  that  they  are  preserved  from  loss  or 
damage.  He  shall  keep  a  record  of  all  papers  or  books  loaned,  requiring 
the  same  to  be  returned  to  the  library  within  one  month. 

VI.  The  business  of  the  counsellors  shall  be  to  explain  the  laws  and 
constitutions  of  the  States,  which  relate  to  the  emancipation  of  slaves,  and 
to  urge  their  claims  to  freedom,  before  such  persons  or  courts  as  are 
authorized  to  decide  upon  them. 

VII.  The  board  of  education  shall  superintend  the  schools  established 
by  the  Society,  and  shall  have  the  management  of  the  funds  appropriated 
to  educational  purposes.  They  shall  also  consider,  suggest  and  supervise 
measures  for  the  improvement  of  the  condition  of  the  colored^  people,  and 
from  lime  to  time  prepare,  and  with  the  consent  of  the  Society  publish 

ics  and  reports  thereon. 
Five  members  shall  constitute  a  quorum  to  transact  the  general  concerns 
of  the  board.  All  orders,  drawn  by  their  chairman,  and  attested  by  their 
secretary,  shall  be  paid  by  the  treasurer  of  the  Society.  They  shall  keep 
regular  'minutes  of  their  proceedings,  and  produce  them  at  every  stated 
in.  ■  ting  of  the  Society. 

VIII.  The  acting  committee  shall  transact  such  business  as  shall  occur 
in  the  recess  of  the  Society,  and  report  the  same  at  each  quarterly  meet- 
ing. They  shall  have  a  right,  with  the  concurrence  of  the  president  or 
one  of  the  vice  presidents,  to  draw  upon  the  treasurer  for  such  sums  of 
money  as  shall   be  necessary  to  carry  on  the  business  of  their  appoint- 



ment ;  and  be  authorized  to  employ  a  clerk  to  transcribe  their  minutes 
into  a  book  provided  for  the  purpose.     Four  of  them  shall  be  a  quorum. 

IX.  The  committee  on  property  shall  have  supervision  over  the  real 
estate  of  the  Society,  and  direct  all  necessary  repairs. 

X.  No  person  shall  be  admitted  to  membership  who  has  not  been  pro- 
posed at  a  previous  meeting  of  the  Society,  nor  shall  an  election  take  place 
in  less  than  one  month  after  the  time  of  his  being  proposed.  The  concur- 
rence by  ballot  of  two-thirds  of  the  members  present  at  a  stated  meeting 
shall  be  necessary  for  the  admission  of  a  member. 

Foreigners,  or  persons  who  do  not  reside  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia, 
may  be  elected  corresponding  members  of  the  Society,  without  being 
subject  to  an  annual  payment,  and  shall  be  admitted  to  the  meetings  of  the 
Society  during  their  residence  in  the  city. 

XI.  Every  member  upon  his  admission,  shall  subscribe  the  constitution 
of  the  Society,  and  contribute  one  dollar  annually,  towards  defraying  its 
contingent  expenses :  (Provided,  that  any  member  paying  at  one  time  the 
sum  of  thirty  dollars  or  upwards,  shall  be  exempt  from  all  future  annual 
contributions.)  If  he  neglects  to  pay  the  same  for  more  than  two  years, 
he  shall,  upon  due  notice  being  given  him  of  his  delinquency,  cease  to  be 
a  member. 

XII.  The  Society  shall  meet  on  the  last  Fifth-day  called  Thursday,  in 
the  months  called  March,  June,  September  and  December,  at  such  place 
as  shall  be  agreed  to  by  a  majority  of  the  Society. 

XIII.  No  person  holding  a  slave  shall  be  admitted  a  member  of  this 

XIV.  No  by-law  or  alteration  of  this  constitution  shall  be  made,  with- 
out being  proposed  at  a  previous  meetiug.  All  questions  shall  be  decided, 
where  there  is  a  division,  by  a  majority  of  votes.  In  those  cases  where 
the  Society  is  equally  divided,  the  presiding  officer  shall  have  a  casting 



Of  those  who  have  been  elected  Mer?ibers  of  the  Society  since  its  organization. 

Members  who  have  held  office  in  the  Society  are  in  small  capitals,  the  highest  office  to  which  they  attained 
being  stated.  (Del.)  signifies  that  the  party  was  a  delegate  to  one  or  more  of  the  Abolition  Conventions  held 
from    794  to  1837. 

Arthur  Thomas,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  14,  1775. 
Seymour  Hart,  "  " 

John  Baldwin,  Pres't,  Phila.,   Pa.,  4  mo. 

14,  1775- 

Thomas  Wishart,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  14,  1775. 
Samuel    Davis,  Treas'r,   Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo. 

14,  1775- 
Thomas  Harrison,   Sec'y,    (del.),   Phila., 

Pa.,  4  mo.  14,  1775. 
John  Browne,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  14,  1775. 
Joel  Zane,  "  " 

Thomas   Hood,  Esq.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  14, 

James  Morgan,  Phila,  Pa.,  4  mo.  14,  1775. 
Richard  Price,  "  5  mo.  29,  1775. 

James  Starr,  Treas'r,  Phila.,  Pa.  5  mo.  29, 

Cadwallader  Dickinson,  Phila.,  Pa., 5  mo.  29, 


Wm.  Lippincott,  Phila.,  Pa.,  5  mo.  29,  1775. 
Amos  Wickersham,     "  " 

Chas.  Eddy,  "  8  mo.  23,  1775. 

Joseph  Shotwell,  Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  afterward> 

of  N.  J.,  8  mo.  23,  1775. 
Wm.  Coates,  Phila.,  Pa.,  8  mo.  23,  1775. 
Matthew   Henderson,  Phila.   Pa.,  8  mo.  23, 


John  Hamilton,  Phila.,  Pa.,  8  mo.  2 
John  Davis,  ''  « 

Joshua  Comly,  "  < 

Thomas  Morgan,       "  ' 

John  Bull,  Esq.,         "  « 


Interregnum  from  nth  mo.  27, 1773,  to  2d  mo.  10th,  17S4,  when  the  Society  reorganized. 

John  Thomas,  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo.  16,  17S4. 
John  Field,  "  " 

Benjamin  Hornor,  ''  " 

Samuel  Richards,  Pres't,  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo. 

16,  1784. 
Wm.  Zane,  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo.  16,  17S4. 
Jonathan  Shoemaker,  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo.  23, 

John  Evans,  Treas'r,  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo.  23, 

Lambert  Wilmer,  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo.  23,  1784. 
John  TODD,  Sec'y      "  " 

James  Whiteall,  Pres't,  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo. 

23,  1784- 
Isaac  Gray,   Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  I,  1784. 
Joseph  Russell,     "  " 

Edward  Brooks,  "  " 

John  Morton,       "  " 

Townsend   Speakman,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  1, 

Richard    Humphreys,  (tailor),    Phila.,    Pa., 

3  mo.  8,  1784. 
Samuel  Baker,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  8,  1784. 
Chas.  Jervis,  "  " 

Thomas  Armat,        "  " 

Israel  Hallowell,      "  " 

Richard  Jones,         "  " 

John   Litle,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.   15,  1784. 
John  Warner,  "  " 

Daniel  Seidrick       "  " 

Andrew  Carson,       "  " 

Thomas  Bartow,       ''  " 

Thomas  Palmer,      "  " 

Robert  Evans,  "  " 

Benjamin  Myers,      "  " 

Clement  Biddle,       "  " 

Jehu  Eldridge,         "  " 

Robert  Wood,  "  " 

Israel  Whelen,  "  " 

Thomas    Meredith,    Pres't,    Phila.,    Pa., 

3  mo.  15,  17S4. 
Joseph  Moore,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.,  15,  17S4. 
Nathan  Sellers,        "  " 

David  Sellers,  "  " 

Isaac  Parrish,  "  " 

Zachariah   Jess,    Sec'y   Delaware  Abolition 

Society,  Phila.,  Pa.,  afterwards  of  Del., 

3  mo.  15,  1784. 
Robert  Coe,  Recorder,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo. 

15.  1784. 
Robert  Towers,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  15,  1784. 
Jacob  Baker,  "  " 

Pattison  Hartshorne,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  15. 



Dr.  Benjamin  Rush,  Pres't,  del.  and  Pres't 

Abolition  Convention,  Fhila.,  Pa.,  3  mo. 

15,  1784. 
Wm.  Poyntell.  Phila.,  Pa.,  8  mo.,  30,  1784. 
Philip  Price,  Kingsessing,  Phila.  Co.,  8  mo. 

30,  1784. 
John     Hunt,    Jr.,   Kingsessing,    Phila.    Co., 

8  mo.  30,  1784. 
Thomas    Poultney,    Phila.,    Pa.,    8  mo.  30, 

Robert    Morris,    (miller),    Frankford,    Ta., 

8  mo.  30,  1784. 
Norris   Jones,    Chester   Co.,  Pa.,  8  mo.  30, 

Abraham  Sharpless,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  8  mo. 

30,  1784. 
Thomas  Eddy,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  afterwards 

of  N.  Y.,  8  mo.  30,  1784. 
Claries    Crawford,    Phila.,    Pa.,   8   mo.  30, 

Isaac  Lloyd,  Darby,  Pa.,  11  mo.  29,  1784. 
Evan  Owen,  Phila.,      "  " 

Isaac  Massey,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  11  mo.  29, 

John  Tolbert,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  11  mo.  29, 

Chas.  Dingee,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  11  mo.   29, 

Thomas  Shoemaker,  Phila.,  Pa.,  11  mo.  29, 

Thomas  Savery,  Phila  ,  Pa.,  11  mo.  29, 1784. 
George  Eddy,        '    "  " 

Isaac  Weaver,  Jr.,    "  " 

Joseph  Budd,  "  " 

James  Lewis,  " 

Caleb  Attmore,         "  " 

John  Jacobs,  (son    of  Israel),   Montgomery 

Co..  Pa.,  2  mo.  28,  1785. 
Jonathan  Penrose,  Pres't,  Fhilada.,   Ta., 

2  mo.  28,  1785. 
Wm.  Trimble,  Jr.,   Chester  Co.,   Pa.,  2  mo. 

28,  17S5. 

Thomas  Shields,  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo.  28,  1785. 
Francis  Bailey,  "  " 

Jeremiah  Paul,  "  " 

Amos  Harmer,  *'  " 

Alex.   Hale,  "  5  mo.  30,  1785. 

Dr.  Andrew  Spence,  Phila.,  Pa.,  5  mo.  30, 

Richard    Riley,    Marcus   Hook,  Pa.,  8  mo. 

29,  1785. 

Joseph  Clark,  Phila.,  Pa.,  8  mo.  29,  1735. 
Dr.  John  Morris,    "  " 

John  Morrison,      "  " 

Major  Wm.  Jackson,  Phila.,  Pa.,  11  mo.  28, 

Zachariah  Poulson,  Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1 1  mo. 
28,  1785. 

Wm.  Graham,  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo.  27,  1786. 
Thomas  Parker,  V.  Pres't,  (del.),   Phila. 

Pa.,  2  mo.  27,  1786. 
Ellis  Yarnall,  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo.  27,  1786. 
Zebulon   Potts,   Esq  ,  Montgomery  Co.,  Pa., 

2  mo.  27,  1786. 
John  Wistar,  (del.),  New  Jersey,  5  mo.  29, 

Thomas   Wistar,    V.   Pres't,   Phila.,   Pa., 

5  mo.  29,  17S6. 
Nathan  Boys,  Phila.,  Pa.,  5  mo.  29,  1786. 
Chas.  Brown,         "  " 

Jacob  Shoemaker,  Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  5  mo.  29, 

Wm.  Linnard,  Phila.,  Pa.,  5  mo.  29,  1786. 
Wm.  Ashby,  "  " 

Jonathan  Pugh,  French  Creek,  Chester  Co., 

5  mo.  29,  17S6. 
John  Oldden,   Phila.,  Pa.,  5  mo.  29,  1786. 
Burton  Wallace,      "  " 

Duncan  Stewart,     **  " 

Jacob  Trasel,  "  " 

Wm.  Mcllhenney,  "  8  mo.  28,  1786. 

Isaac  Pearson,  "  " 

Wm.  West,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  8  mo.  28,  17S6. 
John  Bartram,  Jr.  Phila.,  Pa.,  8  mo.  28,  1786. 
Reece   John,  French    Creek,    Chester    Co., 

8  mo.  28,  1786. 
John  Letchworth,  V.  Pres't,  Phila.,  Pa., 

8  mo.  28,  1786. 
Caleb  Lownes,  Phila.,  Pa.,  8  mo.  28,  1786. 
Tench  Coxe,  Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa.,  11  mo.  27, 

Col.   Francis  Johnston,  Phila.,    Pa.,    II  mo. 

27,  1786. 
Joseph  Sharpless,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1 1  mo.  27, 1786. 
Thomas  Rogers,  "  " 

Dr.  Benj.  Say,  (del.)    "  " 

Joseph  Lownes,  "  " 

James  Read,  Esq.,       "  2  mo.  26, 1787. 

John  D.  Coxe,  Esq.     "  " 

John  Hutchinson,       "  " 

Chas.  Williams,  "  " 

Dr.  John  Story,  "  " 

John  Poultney,  "  " 

Philip  Price,  Jr.,  "  " 

Isaac  Bonsall,  "  " 

David  Lownes,  "  " 

Peter  Woglom,  "  " 

Caleb  Johnson,  "  4  mo.  23,  1787. 

James  Pemherton,  Pres't,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo. 

Hilary  Baker,  Esq.,  Mayor  of  Phila.,  Phila., 

Pa.,  4  mo.  23,  1787. 
Jonathan  Willis,  Jr.,  Phila.,   Pa.,  4  mo.  23, 

Dr.   Benj.  Franklin,   Pres't,  Thila.,  Pa., 

4  mo.  23,  1787. 


Caspar  W.  Hames,  Phila.,   Pa.,  4  mo.  23, 

Samuel  Pancoast,  F.,  Phila.   Pa.,  4  mo.  23, 

Conrad   Hanse,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  23,  17S7. 
Joseph  Anthony,         "  " 

John  Dowers,  "  " 

Benj.  Johnson,  Lancaster,  Pa.,  " 

George  Rutter,  W.,  Phila.,   "  " 

James  Trimble,  "  " 

Sharp  Delany,  "  " 

Dr.  John  Luther,  Chester  Co.,    Pa.,   4  mo. 

23.  17S7- 
Wm.  Wronse,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  23,  1787. 
Wm.    Temple  Franklin,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo. 

23.  1787- 
Dr.  Casp.  Wistar.  Jr.,  Pres't,  (del.),  Phila., 

Pa.,  4  mo.  23,  1787. 
John  Kaighn,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  23,  1787. 
Dr.  James  Hutchinson,    Phila.,    Pa.,  4  mo. 

23.  1787. 
Philip  Benezet,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo  23,  1787. 
Rev.    John    Andrews,    D.  D.,    Phila.,   Pa., 

4  mo.  23,  1787. 
Samuel   Updegrove,   York  Co.,  Pa.,  4  mo. 

23,  1787- 
Rev.   Wm.    Rogers,  D.  D.,  V.  P.,  (del.), 

Philadelphia,  Pa.,  4  mo.  23,  1787. 
John  Claypoole,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  23,  1787. 
Richard  Peters,  Esq.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  23, 

John  Smith,  Lancaster,  afterwards  of  Phila., 

4  mo.  23,  1787. 
Dr.  John  Foulke,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  23,  1787. 
John  Todd,  Jr., 

Bartholomew  Wistar,  "  " 

Thomas   Paine,  "  " 

Wm.  Richards,  "  " 

Joseph    Janus,    Phila.,  afterwards  of  N.  Y., 

4  mo.  23,  1787. 
Dr.   John   Chapman,  Bucks  Co.,  Pa.,  4  mo. 

23,  1787- 
Benj.  Wright,  York,  Pa.,  4  mo.  23,  1787. 
James    Smith,  Jr.,  Esq.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo. 

23.  I7S7- 
Wm.  R.AWLE,   Esq.,  Pres't,  (del.  and  Pres't 

Abolition  Con.,  Phila.,   Pa.,  4  mo.  23, 

James  Phillips,  England,  6  mo.  5,  17S7. 
David  Barclay,        "  " 

Capel  Loft,  "  " 

Thomas  Day,  London,  " 

Hon.  John  Jay,  New  York,         " 
Col.    Mathew    Clarkson,   Pres't   New  York 

Manumission  Society,  New  York,  6  mo. 

5.   1787. 
Granville  Sharp,  Cor.  Sec'y  London  Society, 

London,  6  mo.  5,  1787. 

Richard  Wells,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  5,  17S7 
Robert  Wain,  " 

Robert  Robinson,  England,  " 

Wm.  Hollick, 

Joseph  Bacon,  Phila.,  Pa.,  " 

Nathan  Allen  Smith,  Phila.,  Pa.,  " 
Wm.  Gibbons,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  " 
Wm.  Shaw,  Philadelphia,  "       " 

George  Latimer,     "  "       " 

Joseph  Crukshank,"  "       " 

Samuel  Emlen, Jr.,"  "       " 

Benj.  Shoemaker,   "  "       " 

Samuel  Coates,  (del.),  Phila.,  "  " 
George  Fox,  "       "       " 

John  W.  Kittera,  Lancaster,     "       " 
John  McCree,  Sec'y,  (Sec'y  Abolition  Con- 
vention), Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  5,  1787. 
Bernard  Fearis,     "  " 

Thomas  Lloyd,     "  " 

George  Aston,       "  " 

John  Hopkins,       "  " 

James  Jess,  New  Jersey,  " 

Dr.  Richard  Price,  England,         " 
Dr.    Thomas   Clarkson,    London,   6  mo.  5, 

L'Abbe  Raynal,  France,  6  mo.  5,  1787. 
Woolman    Hickson,    Maryland,    9    mo.   iS, 

Wm.  Brisband,  Lancaster  Co.,    Pa.,  9  mo. 

18,  1787. 
George   Davis,   Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  18,  17S7. 
Robert  Taggart,       "  " 

Jesse  Waterman,      "  " 

James  Trinchard,     "  " 

Toseph  Gibbons,       "  " 

Dr.   Samuel  Powell  Griffits,  V.  Pres't, 

(del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  iS,  1787. 
Wm.  Honeyman,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  18,  1787. 
George  Richie,  "         "  " 

David  Cooper,  New  Jersey,  " 

Samuel  Allison,         "  " 

Thomas  Stokes,         "  " 

Andrew  Geyer,  Phila.,  Pa.,  " 

Joseph  Parker  Norris,  Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa., 

1  mo.  2,  1788. 
Samuel   M.   Fox,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1    mo.  2,  17S8. 
Clement  Hall,  (del.),  Salem,  N.  J.,    " 
Dr.   Ebenezer  Howell,  Salem,  N.  J.,  1  mo. 

2,  1788. 
Thomas  Annesley,  Phila.,  Pa.,  I  mo.  2,  17SS. 
Abram  Liddon,  "  " 

Stephen  Maxfield,         "  " 

Joseph    Williamson,    Chester    River,    Md. , 

1  mo    2,  1788. 
Thos.  Richardson,  New  Garden,  Md.,  1  mo. 

2,  1788. 
Ebenezer  Maule,  Gunpowder,  Md.,  1  mo.  2, 



Robert  Veree,  Abington,  Pa.,  i  mo.  2.  1788. 
Jacob  Parke,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1  mo.  2,  1788. 
Noah    Webster,   Jr.,    Sec'y  Connecticut  So- 
ciety, Connecticut,  I  mo.  2,  1788. 
Samuel   Hopkins,  Newport,  R.  I.,  4  mo.  7, 

Benjamin  Foster,  Newport,  R.  I.,  4  mo.  7, 

Enos  Hitchcock,  Providence,  R.  I.,  4  mo.  7, 

John    Boggs,  Welsh    Tract,  Del.,  4  mo.  7, 

George  Roberts,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  7,  1788. 
Thomas  Norton,  " 

Thomas  Lawrence,     " 
John  Sloan,  (del.),  Haddonfield,  N.  T-,  4  mo. 

7,  17S8. 
Wm.  Dillwyn,  London,  7  mo.  7,  1788. 
Israel  Pleasants,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  7,  1788. 
Thos.  Fitzgerald,       "  10  mo.  6,  1788. 

Le  Marquis  de  La  Fayette,  France,  10  mo. 

6,  1788. 
Stacy  Biddle,  New  Jersey,  10  mo.  6,  1788. 
Richard  Wain,         " 
John  Peter  Brisot  de  Warville,  France,  10 

mo.  6,  1788. 
John  Needles,  Maryland,  1  mo.  5,  1789. 
Warner    Mifflin,    Pres't   Delaware    Society, 

(del.),  Delaware,  1  mo.  5,  1789. 
Aaron  Hughes,  New  Jersey,  1  mo.  5,  1789. 
Thomas  Redman,  (del.),  Haddonfield,  N  J., 

1  mo.  5,  1789. 
Wm.  Chancellor,  Phila.,  Pa.,  I  mo.  5,  1789. 
John  Bleakley,  " 

George  Wilson,  " 

Dr.  Solomon  Bush,     " 
Mordecai  Churchman,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1  mo.  5, 

Wm.  Kidd,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1  mo.  5,  1789. 
John  Ely, 
James  Oldden,    " 
John    Saunders,  Alexandria,  Va.,  1  mo.  5, 

John  Tegal,  Virginia,  1  mo.  5,  1789. 
George  Corbyn,  Virginia,  1  mo.  5,  1789. 
John  Roberts,  Lancaster,  Pa.,  1  mo.  5,  1789. 
Wm.  Webb, 

Benj.  West.  Providence,  R.  I.,  " 

Alex.    Addison,    Esq.,    Sec'y    Washington, 

Pa.,  Society,  Washington,  Pa.,  1  mo.  5, 

Moses  Brown,  Treas.  R.  I.  Soc,  Providence, 

R.  I.,  4  mo.  I,  1789. 
Thos.  Gain,  Boston,  Mass.,  4  mo.  I,  1789. 
Wm.  Pitt,  Esq.,  London,  " 

Thomas    Clements,    Chairman    Salem    Co. 

Society,    (del.),    Haddonfield,     N.    J., 

7  mo.  20,  1789. 

Wm.  Patten,  Newport,  R.  I.,  4  mo.  1,  1789. 
Samuel  Vinson,    "  "  " 

Thos.  Robinson,  "  "  " 

Jonathan  Easton,  "  "  " 

jno.  CoakleyLettsom,  London,  41110. 1, 17S9. 
Daniel  Trotter,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  I,  1789. 
Benj.  Taylor,  "  "  " 

James  B    Bonsall,  near  Darby,  Pa.,  4  mo.  I , 

Thos.  Proctor,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  1,  1789. 
Ebenezer  Breed,      " 
Nathan  Field,  "  " 

Jeremiah  Parker,      "  " 

Jonathan  Jones,       "  " 

Thomas  Forrest,       "  " 

Charton  de  la  Terriere,  France,    " 
Francis  Clery  Dupont,  "  " 

John  Mears,  Northumberland  Co.,  Pa.,  4  mo. 

1,  1789. 
John  Brown,  near  Dover,  Del.,  4  mo.  I,  1789. 
John  Smilie,  Esq.,  Fayette  Co.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  I, 

Matthew  Hale,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  20,  1789. 
Joseph  Inskeep,  "  " 

Thomas  Clements,  Chairman,  Salem  Co.,  So- 
ciety, (del.),  Haddonfield,  N.J.,  7  mo. 
20,  1789. 
Rev.  Nic.  Collin,  D.  D.,  V.  Pres't,  Phila., 

Pa.,  12  mo.  8,  1789. 
Richard  Parker,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  8,  1789. 
John  Starr,  "  " 

I  Samuel  Kingsley,      "  " 

Caleb  Carmalt,  "  " 

Kearney  Wharton,      "  " 

Benj.  W.  Morris,       "  " 

Robert  Roberts,  " 

Thomas  Penrose,        "  " 

Zaccheus  Collins,       "  " 

Henry  Hale  Graham,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  8, 

Anthony   Felix  Wuibert,  Phila  ,  Pa.,  12  mo. 

8,  1789. 
Sam'l  Redwood,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  8,  1789. 
Rees  Cadwallader,  Redstone,  Pa.,  12  mo.  8, 

Samuel  Jackson,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  8, 

Eli  Lewis,  Little  York,  Pa.,  12  mo.  8,  1789. 
Benjamin  Wright,  New  Jersey,  " 

Caleb  Kirk,  Delaware,  " 

Zebulon     Hollingsworth,     Esq.,    Baltimore, 

Md.,  12  mo  ,  8,  1789. 
John  Richardson,  Maryland,  12  mo.  8,  1789. 
John  Feigle,  " 

Benj.  West,  Massachusetts,  " 

Joseph  Wilkinson,  (del.),Md.,  " 

Robert  Kammersly,  York  Co.,  Pa.,  1  mo.  4, 



Thos.  Fisher,  York  Co.,  Pa.,  i  mo.  4,  1790. 
Wm.  Nelson,  "  "  « 

Peter  Mondirf,         "  «  << 

AmbroseUpdegraff,"  "  " 

John  Morris,  "  "  » 

James  Smith,  "  "  « 

Chas.  Lukens,         "  "  << 

Isaiah  Harr,  "  "  << 

Wm.  Welsh, 

S.  Bamett,  "  "  « 

Andrew  Johnson,    "  "  << 

Daniel  May,  "  "  " 

Richard  Hill  Morris,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  1  mo. 

4,  1790. 
Thos.  Githen,  Haddonfield,  N.  J.,  1  mo.  4, 

Hezekiah    Hughes,  Salem,  N.  J.,   1    mo.  4, 

Thos.    Ross,    West   Chester,  Pa.,   1 

John  Stapler,  Jr.,  Bucks  Co.,  Pa.,    1 

Joseph    Thomas,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1  mo.  4, 
Samuel  Claphamson,    " 

mo.  4, 

mo.  4, 

Dr.  Amis  Gregg, 

Girard  Vogels, 

Isaac  Buckbee, 

Joshua  Gilpin, 

Alexander  Symington,  "  4  mo.  5,  1790. 

Thomas  Ames,  " 

John  Brown,  Jr.,  " 

Wm.  Delany,  " 

Seth  Willis, 

Chas  Evans,  " 

Jesse  Maris,  «« 

Geo.  Roberts,  F.,  " 

Chas.  Robertson,  " 

Wm.  Waring,  " 

Jos.  Coiper,  Jr.,  New  Jersey, 

John  Pope,  Mansfield,  N.  J., 

John  Denn,  Salem,  " 

Matthias  Holstein,  Darby,  Pa., 

Nathaniel  Newlin,  " 

Joseph  Hoskins,  Chester  Co.,  Pa., 

JoSEi'ii  SANSOM,  Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  5, 

George    Meade,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  5,  1790. 
George  Williams,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo. 

5,  1790. 
Samuel    Davis,   Jr.,    Phila.,    Pa.,    7  mo.   5, 

John  Biinghurst,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  5,   1790. 
John  Inskeep,  "  << 

James  Logan,  "  <« 

Joseph  Wain,  "  « 

Gideon  Dill  Wells,      " 
James  Jobson,  "  " 

Thomas  Hartley,  York,  Pa.,  " 

Thomas   Scott,  Pres't  Washington,  Pa.,  Ab. 
Society,  (del.),  Washington,  Pa.,  7  mo. 
5,  1790. 
Col.   Absalom  Baird,  Treas'r   Washington, 
Pa.,   Ab.   Society,    (del.),    Washington, 
Pa.,  7  mo.  5,  1790. 
David   Reddick,    Vice   Pres't   Washington, 
Pa.,  Abolition  Society,  Washington,  Pa., 
7  mo.  5,  1790. 
James  Allison,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  5,  1790. 
Alexander  Wright,  "  " 

William  Graham,  Chester,  Pa.,      " 
James  Mcllvain,  "  " 

Robert  Smith,  "  " 

Dr.  George  Logan,  Germantown,  Pa,  7  mo. 

5-  1790. 
John  Vining,  Delaware,  7  mo.  5,  1790. 
Hon.  Wm.  Pinckney,  Md.,  7  mo.  5,  1790. 
Philip  Rodgers,   Pres't  Md.  Society,  Balti- 
more, Md.,  7  mo.  5,  1790. 
Joseph  Townsend,  Sec'y  Maryland  Society. 
*■     (del.),  Baltimore,  Md.,  7  mo.  5,  1790. 
John  Browne,  "  " 

Elias  Ellicott,  "  " 

Jesse  Hollingsworth,  (del.),  Baltimore,  Md., 

7  mo.  5,  1790. 
Dr.  Sparman,  Stockholm,  Sweden,  7  mo.  5, 

M.  Vadstrom,  Stockholm,  Sweden,  7  mo.  5, 

Rev.  Wm.  White,  D.  D.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  10  mo. 

4.  I79°- 
Joseph  Shoemaker,  Jr.  Phila.,  Pa.,  10  mo.  4, 

Samuel   Sitgreaves,  Easton,  Pa.,  10  mo.  4, 

Hon.  Elias  Boudinot,  N.  J.,  10  mo.  4,  1790. 
Robert  Brown,  "  " 

John  Gaunt,  "  " 

Thos.  Ballanger,  "  " 

Isaac  Collins,  Trenton,  N.  J.,  " 

Hon.  Joseph  Bloomfield,  Pres't  New  Jersey 
Society,   (del.   and    Pres't  Ab.  Conven- 
tion), Burlington,  New  Jersey,  10  mo.  4, 
Dr.  Lawrence,  Burlington,  N.  J.,  10  mo.  4, 

Theodore  Sedgwick,  Mass.,  10  mo  4,   1790. 
Samuel  Neale,  Cork,  Ireland,  " 

Samuel  Hoare,  Jr.,  London,  " 

Wm.  Wilberforce,  England,  " 

Dr.  Erskine,  Edinburg,  " 

Dr.   Samuel  Stillman,  Boston,  Mass.,  1  mo. 

3.  I79I- 

David  Howell,  Pres't  R.  I.  Society,  Pro- 
vidence, R.  I.,  1  mo.  3,  1791. 

John  Dorrance,  V.  Pres't  R.  I.  Society,  Pro- 
vidence, R.  L,  1  mo.  3,  1791. 


Thos.    Arnold,   Sec'y    R.    I.    Society,    Pro- 
vidence, R.  I.,  I  mo.  3,  1791. 
Daniel  Lyman,  Providence,  R.  I.,  1  mo.  3, 

Geo.  Benson,  Providence,  R.  I.,  I  mo.  3,  1 791. 
Win.   Patterson,  New  Jersey,  1  mo.  3,  1791. 
Burgess  Allison,  "  " 

Henry  Clifton,  "  " 

Uriah  Woolman,  "  " 

Dr.  Palmer,  Augusta,  Ga.,  I  mo.  3,   1 791. 
Isaac  Briggs,  "  " 

Rev.    Ezra   Stiles,  D.  D.,  Pres't  Conn.  So 

ciety,  Connecticut,  1  mo.  3.  I791- 
David  Austin,  2d  Pres't  Conn.  Soc,  Conn. 

1  mo.  3,  1 79 1. 
Simeon  Baldwin,    Sec'y  Conn.  Soc,  Conn. 

1  mo.  3,  1791. 
Timothy  Jones,  Treas'r  Conn.  Soc,  Conn. 

1  mo.  3,  1 79 1. 
Elizur  Goodrich,  Connecticut,  I  mo.  3,  1 791 
Mark  Leavenworth,       "  " 

Capt.  Wm.  Lyons,  "  "  ^ 

Dr.  EbenezerBeardsley,"  " 

Dr,  Jared  Potter,  "  " 

Stacy  Potts,  Harrisburg,  Pa.,  " 

Wm.    Lucas,   Phila.,  Pa.,  " 

Joseph  Few,  "  41110.4,1791. 

Rev.  Jos.  Pilmore,  D.  D.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo. 

4,  I79I- 
Israel  Taylor,  Phila.,   Pa.,  4  mo.  4,  1791. 
James  Antrim,  "  " 

Wm.  Brown,  Jr.,       "  " 

James  Wilson,  "  " 

Wm.  Wyatt  Fentham,  Maryland,    " 
Jeremiah  Smith,  Phila.,  Pa.,  " 

Hon.   Wm.   Bingham,  Vice  Pres't,  Phila., 

Pa.,  7  mo.  4,  1 791. 
John  Trump,  Philad'a.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  4,  1791. 
Thomas  Paul,  "  " 

Timothy  Matlack,      "  " 

Wm.  Master,  "  " 

Ebenezer  Large,         "  " 

Dr.  Geo.  Glentworth,"  " 

Richard  Hopkins,       "  " 

Peter  Stephen  Duponceau,  Esq.,  Phila.,  Pa., 

7  mo    4,  1 791. 
Jesse  Trump,  Whitemarsh,  7  mo.  4,  179 1. 
Thos.  W.  Pryor,      "  " 

Ephraim  Steele,  Carlisle,  Pa.,         " 
John  Jordan,  "  " 

Michael  Hubley,  Lancaster,  Pa.,     " 
John  Patrick,  Cumberland  Co.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  4, 

Joshua  Fusey,  Jr.,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  7  1110.4, 

Richard   Hartshorne,   Pres't  N.  J.,  Society, 
del.  and  Pres't  Ab.  Con.,  New  Jersey, 
7  mo.  4,  1791. 

Dr.   Moses  Bartram,  South  Carolina,  7  mo. 

4.  I791- 
Isaac  Milnor,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  2,  1792. 
Casper  W.  Morris,  "  " 

Robert  Dawson,      "  " 

Lewis  Walker,        "  " 

Samuel  Foudray,    "  " 

Wm.  Wood, 

George  Steinmetz,  "  " 

George  S.  Moore,  "  " 

Samuel  Sterrett,  (del.),  Baltimore, Md.^mo, 

2,  1792. 
Thomas    Dixon,    Baltimore,  Md.,  4  mo.  2, 

George    Churchman,  Cecil  Co.,  Md.,  4  1110. 

2,  1792. 
Joseph  Churchman,  Cecil  Co.,  Md.,  4  mo.  2, 

Richard  Gardner,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  2,  1792. 
James  Todd,  Sec,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo. 

2,  1792. 
James  Poultney,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  2,  1792. 
John  Elmslie,  Jr.  "  " 

Dr.  Daniel  De  Benneville,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo. 

2,  1792. 
James  Morris,  Montgomery  Co.,  Pa.,  7  mo. 

2,  1792. 
John    Shoemaker,   Jr.,   Abington,  7    mo.  2, 

Jonathan    Shoemaker,    Abington,  7    mo.  2, 

Samuel  Riddle,  York,  Pa.,  7  mo.   2,   1792. 
John  Lukens,  "  " 

Emmor  Baily,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,      " 
Moses  Marshall,         "  " 

David  Shields,  Maryland,  " 

Morris  Darling,  "  " 

Wm.  Brown,  "  " 

Martin  Eichelberger,"  " 

John  Keller,  "  " 

Wm.  Woods,  "  " 

John  Mitchell,  "  " 

John  Shultz,  "  " 

John  Mickle,  "  " 

Abel  Janney,  Culpepper,  Va.,  " 

John  Smith,  Jr.,  York,  Pa.,  12  mo.  24,  1792. 
Daniel  Longstreth,  Bucks  Co.,  Pa.,   12  mo. 

24,  1792. 
Jonathan  Pickering,  Bucks  Co.,  Pa.,  12  mo. 

24,  1792. 
Randall  Malin,  Jr.,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  12  mo. 

24,  1792. 
Joseph  Malin,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,   12  mo.   24, 

Benjamin  Kite,  Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo. 

24,  1792. 
James  Winchester,  (del.),  Maryland,  12  mo. 

24,  1792. 


Joseph    Price,  Phila.,  Ta.,  12  mo.  24,  1792. 
Chas.  James  Fox,  Esq.,  London,  12  mo.  24, 

Joseph  Barger,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  1,  1793. 
William  Garrett,         "  " 

Cornelius  Barnes,        "  " 

James  Hardie,  "  " 

Sallows  Shewell,         "  " 

John  Hallowed,  Esq.,"  " 

Thomas  Bartow,         "  " 

Robert    Patterson,    V.    Presid't.    (del.), 

Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  I,  1793. 
Benj.  R.  Morgan,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo. 

1.  1793- 
Robert  Hare,  Philad'a,  Pa.,  4  mo.  1,  1793. 
Owen  Biddle,  " 

Jonathan  Carmalt,  Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.   I, 

Jacob  R.  Howell,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  1,  1793. 
Peter    Le    Barbier   Duplessis,    Phila.,     Pa., 

4  mo.  1,  1793. 
John  Malin,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  1,  1793. 
Charles  Dilworth,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  I, 

John    Talbot,  Delaware   Co.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  I, 

Seneca  Lukens,  Montgomery  Co.,  Pa.,  41110. 

.      1,  1793- 
Thomas    Kennedy,    Cumberland    Co.,    Pa., 

4  mo.  I,  1793. 
Albcrtin  Gallatin,  Fayette  Co.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  1, 

Abraham    Inskeep,   New   Jersey,  4   mo.   1, 

John   Vanderwerf,    Amsterdam,    Holland,  4 

mo.  1,  1793. 
John  Vanderwerf,  Jr.,  Amsterdam,  Holland, 

4  mo.  I,  1793. 
Nicholas  Simon  Van  Winter,  Leyden,  4  mo. 

1.  1793- 
Travis  Tucker,  near  Norfolk,  Va.,  6  mo.  24, 

John  Smith,  Delaware,  6  mo.  24,  1793. 
Nathan  Harper,  Frankford,  Pa.,  6  mo.  24, 

Joseph  Thomas,  (Flour  Factor),  Phila.,  Pa., 

6  mo.  24,  1793. 
Samuel  Williams,  Jr.,  Phila.,  Fa.,  6  mo.  24, 


George  Booth,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  24,  1793. 
Peter  Barker,  Jr.,         "  " 

Dr.  John  Porter,  "  " 

Jonathan  Worrill,         "  " 

John  Harrison,  (son  of  Thomas,)  Phila.,  Pa., 
6  mo.  24.  1793. 
■^Wm.    Richards,    Lynn,  England,  1    mo.  6, 

William  Martin,  Chester,  Pa.,  1  1110.  6,  1794- 

John  Beatson,  Hull,  England,  1  mo.  6,  1794. 
Win.  Allum,  New  York,  " 

Wm.  Fox,  London,  England,  " 

Abraham  Booth,      "  " 

James  Dore,  " 

Dr.  John  Rippon,    "  " 

Abraham  Chapman,  Bucks  Co.,  Pa  ,   " 
Nathan  F.  Shewed,  "  " 

Seth  Chapman,  Montgomery  Co.,  Pa.,  I  mo. 

6,  1794. 
Slator  Clay,  Montgomery  Co.,  Pa.,  I  mo.  6, 

Dr.  Joseph  Pierce,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  1  no.  6, 

James    Trevor,    Burlington,  N.  J.,  1  mo.  6, 

Walter  Franklin,  Sec'y.,  (del.),andPres't 

Ab.  Conv.,  Phila.,  Pa,  1  mo.  6,  1794. 
John  Coyle,  "  " 

William  Wigglesworth,  Phila.,  Pa.,  I  mo.  6, 

John  Nancarrow,  Phila.,  Pa.,  I  mo.  6,  1794. 
Charles  Shoemaker,      "  " 

Thomas  Dunn,  "  " 

James  Swain,  N.  Liberties,  Phila.  Co.,  1  mo. 

6,  1794. 
Edward  Farris,  Phila.,  Pa.,  I  mo.  6,  1794. 
John  Rively,  Kingsessing,  Phila.  Co.,  4  mo. 

1,  1794- 
William  Preston,   (Bricklayer),   Phila.,    Pa., 

4  mo.  1,  1794. 
Joseph  D.  Drinker,   (Merchant),  Phila.,  Pa., 

4  mo.  I,  1794. 
Joseph  Bedham  Smith,  Phila.,   Pa.,  4  mo.  I, 

Timothy   Paxson,  Sec'y,   (del.  and   Pres't 

of   Ab.    Conv.),    Phila.,    Pa.,   7  mo.  3. 

Thos.  P.  Cope,  (del.  and  Treas'r  Ab.  Conv.), 

7  mo-  3.  1794- 

Solomon  White,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  3,  1794. 

Edward  Garrigues,     "  " 

Thomas  Say  Bartram,  "  " 

Daniel  Dawson,           "  " 

James  Bringhurst,       "  " 

Joseph  Turner,  Phila.  Co.,  Pa.,  " 

Wm.  Gazzam,                  "  " 

Wm.  Turner,                   "  " 
Wm.  Barber,  York,  Pa., 

Watson  Atkinson,  Phila.  Co.,  Pa.,  " 

Benjamin  Davis,  Radnor,  '• 
Thomas  Wickersham,  Talbot  Co.,  Md.,  7  mo. 

3.  I794- 
Chas.  B.  Brown,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  23,  1794. 
Israel  Paxson,  "  " 

Benj.  Tucker,  V.  Pres't,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa., 

9  mo.  23,  1794. 
Thomas  Keel,  Baltimore,  9  mo.  23,  1794- 


Samuel  Bettle,  (del.),Phila.,9mo.,23, 1794. 
Daniel  Thomas,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  23,  1794 
John  Poor,  "  " 

James  Little,  "  << 

Ezekiel  King,  "  " 

Joseph  Keen,  "  " 

Leonard  Sayre,  ''  " 

John  McLeod,  "  " 

Philip  Jones,  Jr.,       "  " 

Thomas  Jones,  "  " 

John  Jones,  "  " 

Thos.  Ustick,  Phila.  Co.,  Pa., 
Richard  Hillier,  Long  Island,  " 

Rev.  Elhanan  Winchester,  London," 
Thos.  Memminger,  Bucks  Co.,  Pa.," 
Casper  Wistar,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  " 
Isaac  Taylor,  "  " 

Richard  Strode,  "  " 

Edward  Darlington,     "  " 

Cheyney  Jefferies,         "  " 

Benjamin   Webber  Oakford,  Delaware  Co., 

Pa.,  9  mo.  23.   1794. 
Abr'm  Shoemaker,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12 mo.  24, 1794 
Robert  Shewell,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12 mo.  24,  1794. 
John  Woodsides,  "  " 

George   S.   Johannot,  (del.),  Baltimore,  12 

mo.  24,  1794. 
Wm.  Mott,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  24,  1794.. 
Edward  Stammer,  "  " 

John  Stanford,  New  York,  " 

Wm.  Button,  London,  " 

Dr.  John  E.  Harrison.  England,  " 
Thomas  Fleeson,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  19,  1795. 
Plunket  F.  Glentworth,  "  « 

Nathaniel  Davis,  ''  " 

Thomas  Randall,  "  " 

Thomas  Stewardson.      "  " 

John  Hulme,  Bucks  Co.,  Pa.,  " 

Robert  Shewell,  "  " 

Wm.  Sharpless,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  19. 
Samuel  Painter,  Jr.,        "  " 

Hugh  Barclay,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  " 
Samuel  Dexter,  Massachusetts,  " 
Morgan  John  Rhees,  Wales,  " 

Jonathan  Gibbs,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  3,  1795. 
John  Gardiner,  Jr.,        "  " 

Tared  Mansfield,  ''  " 

Thomas  W.  Tallman,    "  « 

Abraham  M.  Garrigues,"  " 

Thomas  Carpenter,         "  " 

Isaac  Carlisle,  "  " 

James  Pilling,  "  « 

John  Vincent,  "  «« 

Edward  Jones,  "  " 

Wm.  Taylor,  Jr.,  "  " 

David  Kempton,  "  " 

George  Suckley,  "  " 

Joshua  R.  Smith,  "  " 

James  Milnor,  Sec'y,  (del.  and  Pres't  Ab. 

Con  v.),     Norristown,     Pa.,     afterwards 

Phila.,  9  mo.  25,  1795. 
Joseph  Gurney,  London,  9  mo.  25,  1795. 
John  Gurney,  •'  " 

Robert   Frazer,    (del.),  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  9 

mo.  25,   1795. 
Wm.    Jones,    (del.)  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.   25, 


Jacob  Johnson,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  25,  1795. 
Peter  Smyth,  "  « 

Wm.  Young  Birch,  "  2  mo.  22,  1796. 

Isaac  T.   Hopper,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo. 

22,  1796. 
John  Derbyshire,  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo.  22,  1796. 
John  Ormrod,  •«  " 

Wm.  Gibbons,  "  " 

Emmor  Kimber,  "  " 

Wm.  Smith,  (Tailor),  " 
Elijah  Waring,  "  " 

Enoch  Lewis,  "  " 

George  Ashbridge,       "  " 

James  Girvan,  "  " 

Isaac  Sermon,  "  " 

Chas.  Newbold,  «•  " 

Robert  Pleasants,         "  " 

Basil  Wood, 

Peter  Helm,  "  " 

John  Griffiths,  "  " 

Wm.  Griffiths.  "  " 

Joseph  Hemphill,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,   " 
Isaac  Bailey,  Jr.,  "  " 

Richard  Barnard,  Jr.,  "  " 

Isaac  Wilson,  "  " 

John  Jefferis,  "  " 

Caleb  Massey,  "    4  mo.  4,  1796. 

Theophilus  Foulke,  Bucks  Co.,  Pa.,  " 
Joseph  Taylor,  "  " 

John  Brown,   Falls  Township,    Bucks    Co., 

4  mo.  4,  1796. 
Thomas  Lloyd,  South  Wales,  4  mo.  4,  1796. 
Wm.  Lownes,   Falls  Township,  Bucks  Co., 

4  mo.  4,  1796. 
John  J.   Parry,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  28,  1796. 
Wm.  Barker, 
Thos.  Newnham, 
Charlton  Yeatman, 
Richard  Mosley, 
John  Burk, 
John  Jones, 
Jeffrey  Smedley,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  " 
John  Fling,  Phila.,  Pa.,  10  mo.  3,  1796. 
Gilbert  Gaw,  Jr.,  "  " 

Titus  Bennett,       "  " 

W.  Wright,  Pres't  Colum.  Soc,  (del.),  Lan- 
caster Co.,  10  mo.  3,  1796. 
Othniel  Alsop,  (del.  and  Sec'y  Abo.  Conv.), 
Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  1,  1796. 


Samuel  Jones,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  1,  1796. 
Ezra  Varden,  "  " 

Richard  Lee,  "  " 

John  Turner,  "  " 

Joseph  Marshall,  Jr.,"  " 

Joseph  Engle,  "  " 

John  B.  Ackley,       "  " 

Thomas  Perkins,       " 
Matthew  Watson,     "  " 

Samuel  Wallis,  Lycoming  Co.,  Pa.,  12  mo 

1,  1796. 
John  Adlum,  Lycoming  Co.,  Pa.,  12  mo.   1 

Win.   Ellis,  Lycoming  Co.,  Pa.,   12  mo.  I 

Caleb  Hoopes,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  12  mo.   1 

Thomas  Taylor,  Chester  Co.,  Pa..  12  mo.  1 

James  Lindley,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  1 

Henry  Hoopes,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  12  mo.   1 

17961  ^         T, 

Robert  Lambourn,  Jr.,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  12 

mo.  I,  1796. 
Archibald  McLean,  Alexandria,  Va.,  12  mo 

1,  1796. 
Samuel  Garrigues,  Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo.  14 

Joseph  Dilworth,  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo.  14,  1797 
Gervas  W.  Johnson,    "  " 

Joseph  Merrefield,        "  " 

Abraham  Parker,  "  " 

Levi  Garrett,  "  " 

Wm.  A.  Stokes,  "  " 

Ileniy  Atherton,  Jr.,  Bucks  Co.,  Pa.,  " 
Matthias  Hutchinson,         "  " 

Wm.  Buckman,  "  " 

Samuel  Johnson,  (Hatter),"  " 

Samuel  Brown,  "  " 

Joseph    Roberts,    Montgomery     Township, 

Mont.  Co.,   Pa.,  2  mo.    14,  1797. 
Benj.  Evans,  Wales,  2  mo.  14,  1797. 
Wm.   Nichols,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  12,  1797. 
Elisha  Gordon,  "  " 

Matthew  Carey,         "  " 

Samuel  Shinn,  "  " 

Henry  Holdship,      "  " 

Chas.  Carey.  "  " 

Benj.  Cresson  "  " 

James  Strawbridge,  "  " 

Samuel  Barnes,  "  " 

John  U.  Pinkerton,  "  " 

Henry  Toland,  "  " 

Michael   Keppele,   Esq.,  Thila.,  Pa.,  6  mo. 

12,  1797. 
,Henry  Drinker,  Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.   12, 


Wm.  Macbean,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  12,  1797. 

John  Armstrong,        "  " 

Wm.  Vicary,  " 

Wm.  Penrose,  Phila.  Co.,  Pa.,  " 

James  Hopkins,  Lancaster,  Pa.,         " 

Joshua  Sullivan,  Lower  Dublin,        " 

Leger  Felicete  Sonthonax,  French  Commis- 
sioner, Cape  Francois,  St.  Domingo,  1 1 
mo.  9,  1797. 

Julien  Raimond,  French  Commissioner,  Cape 
Francois,  St.  Domingo,  11  mo.  9,  1797. 

M.  Pascal,  Secretary  General  to  French 
Commission,  Cape  Francois,  St.  Do- 
mingo, 11  mo.  9,  1797. 

Benj.  Giroud,  Cape  Francois,  St.  Domingo, 

11  mo.  9,  1797. 

Geo.  Worrall,  Phila.,  Pa.,  11  mo.  9,  1797. 

James  Traquair,  " 

John  Miller,  M.  C,    " 

John  Lodor,  "  " 

Samuel  Cooper,  "  " 

Edmund  Kinsey,        " 

Daniel  Smith,  Northumberland  Co.,  Pa.,  11 

mo.  9,  1797. 
Thomas   Vickers,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  12  mo. 

22,  1797. 
Dr.  Henry  Yates  Carter,  Germantown,  Pa., 

12  mo.  22,  1797. 

James  Murray,   Bucks  Co.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  22, 

Ezekiel    E.    Maddock,  Phila.,  Pa.,   12  mo. 

22,  1797. 
Wm.  L.   Maddock,  Phila.,  Pa.,    12  mo.    22, 

Ebenezer  Hickling,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  22, 

Thomas  Smith,  (Printer),  Phila.,  Pa.,  5  mo. 

28,  1798. 
John  J.  Malcom,  Phila.,  Ta.,  5  mo.  28,  179S. 
Richard  Vidler,  "  " 

Samuel  Lippincott,        "  " 

John  Baily  Wilson,        "  " 

"Daniel  Broadhead,  Jr.," 
John    Cadwallader,    Huntingdon    Co.,    Pa., 

5  mo.  28,  1798. 
Robert    Patterson,   Jr.,    Phila.,    Pa.,  12  mo. 

25.  1798. 
Robert  Cochran,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo,  25,  1798. 
Robert  C.  Martin,        "  " 

Oliver  Evans,  "  " 

Richard  Rush,   Esq.,   Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  29, 

James  W.  Clements.  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  29, 

Joseph   Reed,    Esq.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  29, 

John  Tiesvvorth,  Northumberland  Co.,  Pa  , 

3  mo.  29,  1799. 


Joseph  Sinton,  Sunbury,  Pa.,  3  mo.  29,  1799. 
George  Taylor,  Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  5  mo.  27, 

Samuel  Harvey,  Sec'y,  Germantown,  Pa., 

5  mo.  27.  1799. 
Samuel    Smith,  (currier),  del.,  Phila.,    Pa., 

5  mo.  27,  1799, 
Joseph  Hopkinson,  (att'y),  Phila.,  Pa.,  5  mo. 

27,  1799. 
Wm.  Griffith,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  5  mo.  27, 1799. 
Thos.  Peirce,  Chester  Co.,  Pa  ,  5  mo.  27, 1799. 
Wm.  Petrikin,  Lycoming  Co.,  Pa.,  5  mo.  27, 

Samuel  Davis,  Kent  Co.,  Md.  5  mo.  27,  1799. 
Philip  Kinsey,  Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  I  mo.  2,  1800. 
Dr.  Felix  Pascalis,  "  " 

John  Reynell  Coates,  (del.  and  Sec'y   Abo. 
Convention),    Phila.,    Pa.,   1   mo.    2, 

Luke  Cassinj  Delaware   Co.,  Pa.,  1  mo.  2, 

G.  Washington  Gibbons,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo. 

1,  1S00. 
Joshua  Lippincott,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  I,  1800. 
Hanson  Waters,  "  " 

Nathaniel  Chapman,  Jr.,  Va.,  " 

Abraham   Hilyard,   Phila.,    Pa.,  9    mo.    29, 

James  A.  Neal,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  29,  1800. 
Mordecai  Wetherill,    "  " 

Robert  Taylor,  "  " 

Solomon  W.  Conrad,  "  " 

Richard   Peters,  Jr.,   (del.  and  Pres't  Abo. 

Conv.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  29,  1800. 
Chas.  Townsend,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  1, 1801. 
John   Bacon,    Sec'y,   (Sec'y    Ab.    Conv.), 

Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  I,  1801. 
Abraham  Lower,  (del,),  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  1, 

Chas.  Allen,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  1,  1S01. 
Nathan  Smith,  Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa.,  41110.  1, 

1 801. 
Thomas  Stroud,   Phila.,  Pa.,  41110.  I,  1S01. 
Henry  Baker,  " 

James    Tongue,    Ann    Arundell    Co.,    Md., 

4  mo.  1,  1 801. 
Josiah  White,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  4,  1S01. 
Joseph   Wright,    (sailmaker),    Phila.,  Pa.,  7 

mo.  4,  1  So  1. 
Ephraim  Haines,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  4,  1S01. 
Samuel  F.  Bradford,      "  " 

Joshua  Longstreth,        "  " 

Richard  Wevill, 
Joseph  Trimble,   Jr.,   Delaware  Co.,  Pa  ,  7 

mo.  4,  1S01. 
Bent.  Williams,  (currier),  Sec'y,  (del.  and 

Sec'y  Abo,  Conv.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  4, 

1 801. 

John  Meredith,  Delaware  Co.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  4. 

Matthew  Llewellyn,  Phila.,  Pa.,  10  mo.  2, 

1 801. 
Ebenezer  Clark,  Phila.,  Pa.,  10  mo.  2,  1801. 
John  Dorsey,  "  " 

Alexander  Shaw,         "  " 

John  M.  Smith,  "  " 

George  Vaux,  (del.),  "         12  mo.  31,  1801. 
Jeremiah  Warder,  Jr.,"  " 

Henry  Dean,  "  " 

Benj.  Marshall,  "         7  mo.  1,  1802. 

John  Sergeant,  (del.  and  Pres't  Ab.  Conv.), 

Philadelphia,  Pa.,  7  mo.  I,  1802. 
James  Robeson,  Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  1,  1802. 
Benj.  Rowland,  Montgomery  Co.,  Pa.,  7  mo. 

I,  1802. 
Thomas  Marshall,  Delaware  Co.,  Pa.,  7  mo. 

1,  1802. 
John  Folwell,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  1,  1803. 
Caleb  Wright,         " 
Joseph   M.   Paul,   V.  Pres't,  (del.),  Phila., 

Pa.,  3  mo.  1,  1803. 
John    Partridge,   (attorney),  Elkton,  Md.,  3 

mo.  I,  1803. 
Dr.  Wm.  Shaw,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  28,  1804. 
John   Brown,    (silver  plater),  Phila.,   Pa.,  6 

mo.  28,   1808. 
David  McKinney,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  28,  1804. 
Lindsay  Nicholson,       "  " 

Archibald  Binney,         "  " 

James  Ronaldson,  "  " 

Thomas  Bryan,  "  " 

Samuel  English,  "  " 

Joseph   R.  Jenks,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo. 

29,  1804. 

Evan  Lewis,  Jr.,  (del.  and  V.  President  Ab. 

Con.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  29,  1804. 
Jacob   S.    Wain,   Jr.,   (del.    and  Sec'y   Ab. 

Conv.),  9  mo.  29,  1804. 
Abel  Satterthwaite,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  29. 1804. 
Benj.  H.  Smith,  Delaware  Co.,  Pa.,  11  mo. 

20,  1804. 
Wm.  Milnor, Bucks  Co.,  Pa.,  11  mo.  20, 1S04. 
John  Kaighn,  Phila.,   Pa.,    II  mo.  20,   1S04. 
Thos.  Owen,  Jr.,     "  6  mo.  28,  1805. 

Chas.  Eberlee,  " 

JobB.  Remington,  "  4  mo.  4,  1806. 

Wm.  Brown,  "  " 

John  Sims,  (painter),  Phila.,   Pa.,  7    mo.  7, 

Geo.  D.  Jones,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  7,  1806. 
Joseph  Parker.   Sec'y,   (del.  and  V.  Pres't 

Ab.  Con.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  7,  1806. 
Joseph  Ridgway,  (tailor),  Phila.,   Pa.,  3  mo. 

30, 1807. 
Richard  Pryor,  (hatter),  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo. 

30,  1807. 


Thomas    Kite,   Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  22,  1807. 
Wm.  Delaney,  Esq.,  "  " 

Joseph  D.  Martin,      ''  " 

Abraham   L.   Pennock,   Sec'y,    (del.   and 

Pres't    Abolition    Convention),    Phila., 

Pa.,  6  mo.  22,  1807. 
Roberts  Vaux,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  22, 

Chas.  C.  French,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  6,  1807. 
Nathan  Dunn,  "  " 

Jesse  Thomas,  "  " 

Thomas  Field,  "  " 

Benj.  Davis,  "  " 

Thomas  PHiPPS.Tr'r,"         12  mo.  21,  1807. 
Joseph  R.  Hopkins,    "  " 

John  Bradley,  "  6  mo.  28,  180S. 

Joseph  T.  llallowell,  "  " 

John  Parham,  "  " 

Benj.  Mitchell,  Jr.,      "  " 

Matthew  Semple,        "  9  mo.  27,  1808. 

Geo.  Palmer,  "  12  mo.  16,  1808. 

Stephen  Pike,  (del.),  "  ■  " 

Dr.  William  Price,      "  3  mo.  31,  1809. 

Jonah  Thompson         "  " 

Joseph  Walton  "  II  mo.  S,  1809. 

Isaac  Smedley,  "  9  mo.  4,  1810. 

Jonathan  Fell,  Jr.,       "  4  mo.  3,  1S12. 

Israel  Maule,  "  " 

David  Jones, (hatter),"  " 

Wm.  Wayne,  Jr.,  Pres't,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa., 

4  mo.  3,  1  Si 2. 
Philip  Price,  Jr  ,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo.  2, 

Edward   Parker,  Phila.,  Pa.,  2  mo.  2,  1813. 
Wm.  Milnor,  "         3  mo.  15,  1813. 

Thomas   Shipley,  Pres't,  (del.  and  Pres't 

Ab.  <  Ion. ),    Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  15,  1813. 
Chas.  E.  Smith, 
Joseph  Lea,  (del.  and  Treas'r  Abol.  Conv.), 

Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  15,  1813. 
Asa  Bassett,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  8,  1813. 
Wm.  Bryant,         "  " 

Andrew  Fisher,    "  " 

Ward  Griffin,        " 

Wm.  Carman,        "  3  mo.  17,  1814. 

Chas.  Longstreth,"  " 

Benj.  H.  Yarnall,  "  " 

Wm.  Thomas,       "  " 

Dr.  David  J.  Davis,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  17, 1814. 
Thomas    Jacobs,    Up.  Providence,    Montg'y 

Cc,  3  mo.  17,  1814 
John  Barnett,  Up.  Providence,   Montg'y  Co., 

3  mo.  17,  1S14. 
Samuel    Webb,    Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  30,  1815. 
Benj.  M.  Hinchman,    "  " 

John  Hinchman,  "  " 

EDWARD,    Pres't,    (del.),    Phila., 
Pa.,  3  mo.  25,  1816. 

Henry  Troth,  Treas'r,   Phila.,   Pa.,  3  mo. 

25,  1816. 
John  Elliott,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  25,  1S16. 
Samuel  Sellers,     " 
Wm.  Folwell,  Jr.,"  " 

Benj.  Albertson,    "  " 

Jacob  F.  Walter,  "  " 

James  Mott,  Jr.,  Sec'y,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa., 

3  mo.  25,  1816. 

John  H.  Willets,  Phila..  Pa.,  3  mo.  25,  1816. 
Powell  Stackhouse,  Phila.,  9  mo.  23,  1816. 
Jonathan  Thomas,      "  9  mo.  23,  1S16. 

George  Bourne,  "  " 

Dr.  Anthony  Benezet,  Phila.,  Pa.    12  mo.  19, 

Benj.    C.    Parvin,   (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo. 

19,  1816. 
Joseph  McDowell,  Phila.,  Pa.,  i2mo.  19,  1816 
Dr.  Joseph  Parrish,  Pres't.  (del.),  Phila., 

Pa.,  12  mo.  19,  1816. 
Philip  Garrett,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  19,  1S16. 
Wm.   Kirkwood,  Columbia,  Pa.,  12  mo.  19, 

James  Wright,  Columbia,  Pa.,  i2mo.  19,1816. 
Jos.   Mifflin,  (del.  and  Sec.  Columbia  Abol. 

Society),  Columbia,  Pa..  12  mo.  19,  1S16. 
Caleb  Richardson,   (bookseller),  Phila.,  Pa., 

4  mo.  9,  1817. 

Samuel  Austin,  (merchant),  Phila.,  Pa.  4  mo. 

9,  1817. 
Wm.  P.  Paxson,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  9,  181 7. 
Benj.  C.  White, 
Thomas   P.    May,   Pottsgrove,   Chester  Co., 

Pa.,  4  mo.  9,  1817. 
Samuel    Schaeffer,   Coventry,    Chester    Co., 

Pa.,  4  mo.  9,  1817. 
Stephen    Rossetter,    Coventry,   Chester  Co., 

Pa.,  4  mo.  9,  1 817. 
Mordecai    Thomas,   Coventry,   Chester  Co., 

Pa..  4  mo.  9,  1817. 
Thos.  Vickers,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  20, 

Wm.    Harland,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  20,  1817. 
Wm.  Kennard,  Jr.,      "  " 

Bartholomew  Wistar,  "  " 

George  A.  Madeira,    "  " 

Joseph  Askew,  "  " 

Samuel  Griscom,  "  " 

Rev.  George  Boyd,  (del.),  N.  L.  Phila.,  Pa., 

9  mo.  22,  1817. 
Joseph  Knight,  Phila.,   Pa..  9  mo.  22,  1817. 
Richard  C.  Wood,  (del.  and  Sec'y  Abolition 

Con.),  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  9  mo.  22, 1817. 
Joseph  Rotch,  "  " 

Wm.  Garrigues,  Jr.,   "  " 

Pleasants   Winston,   Richmond,   Va.,   9  mo. 

22,  1S17. 
Thos  Lewis,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  22, 1S17. 


Dr.  Wm.  Staughton,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  22, 

Dr.   Jonas   Preston,   V.  Pres't,  (del.  and 

Treas'r  Abolition  Conv.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  9 

mo.  22,  1817. 
Clement  Laws,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  22,  181 7. 
Luther  Rice,  Adams  Co.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  22,1817. 
David  Worth,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  22,  1817. 
Ellis  Stokes, 

Thomas  Christian,  "  " 

Joseph  Pyle,  "  " 

Samuel  Smith,  N.  L.  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  22, 

Nicholas  Wireman,   (son  of  Wm.),  Adams 

Co.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  22,  1817. 
Jesse  Russell,  Adams  Co.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  22, 1817. 
George  Wilson,        "  " 

Samuel  Wright,  (son  of  Benj.),  Adams  Co., 

9  mo.  22,  1817. 
Joseph  Cloud,   (U.  S.  Mint),  Phila.,  Pa.,  12 

mo.  4,  1 81 7. 
Dr.  Nathan  Shoemaker,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo. 

4,  1817. 
Joseph  Cowperthwaite,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  4, 

Blakey  Sharpless,    Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12 

mo.  4.   1S17. 
Benj.   M.  Hollinshead,  Phila.,   Pa.,   12  mo. 

4,  1817. 
Joseph  S.  Kite,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  4,  1817. 
Richard  Parker,  "  " 

James  R.  Greaves,       "  " 

Thomas  Parker,  Jr.,    "  " 

Phineas  Davis,  York,  Pa.,  " 

Abner  Thomas,         "  " 

Augustus  S.  Kirk,    "  " 

David  Paul  Brown,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo. 

13,  1818. 
Joseph   M.  Truman,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.   13, 

John  Field,  Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  13.  1818. 
Joseph  G.  Oliver,  Milford,  Del.,       " 
Wm.  P.  Milnor,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  1,  1818. 
Adam  Whann,  Elkton,  Md.,  " 

Zebulon  Rudulph,         "  " 

Edward  D.  Corfield,  Esq.,  N.  L.,  Philada., 

Pa.,  6  mo.  1,  1818. 
Samuel    C.    Atkinson,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  1, 

Thomas  Garrett,  Jr.,   (del.),  Darby,  Pa.,  6 

mo.  1,  1818. 
Wm.  Davis,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  1,  1818. 
Ellis  Yarnall,  Jr.,   " 
John  Ella,  "  " 

Joseph  Roberts, Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa  ,  6  mo.  1, 1S1S. 
lohn  Bartlett,  "  " 

Benj.  Smith,  "  " 

Ed.  H.  Bonsall,  "  " 

James  Wilson,  "  " 

Moses  Gillingham,  Maryland,  6  mo.  1,  1S1S. 

Thos.  Gillingham,  "  '• 

Dr.  Edwin  A.  Atlee,  (del.),  Phila  ,  Pa.,   6 

mo.  1,  181 8. 
Townsend  Sharpless,  Phila,  Pa., 6 mo.  1, 1S1S, 
Jacob  F.  Wilkins,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  1,  1818. 
Lewis  Wernwag,  Phoenix  Works,  Chest.  Co., 

9  mo.  14,  1818. 
George  White,   Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  14,  1818. 
George  Robinson,        *'  " 

George  Peterson  "  " 

Isaac    Parry,  N.   L.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.   14, 

David  Weatherby,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo. 

14,  1818. 
Daniel   Smith,    G.,    Phila,    Pa.,    9  mo.   14, 

Dr.  G.  Burgin,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  14,  1S1S. 
Caleb  Cresson,  "  " 

Moses   Lancaster,  N.  L.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo. 

14,  1818. 
James  Cox,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  14,  1818. 
Wm.  Rawle,  Jr.,  (del.),  Phila,  Pa.,  91110. 

14,  1818. 
Jesse  J.   Maris,  Delaware  Co.,  Pa.,  9   mo. 

14,  181S. 
John  K.  Garrett,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  14,  1S1S. 
Robert  Murphey,         "  12  mo.  7,  18 1 8. 

Samuel  B.  Morris,        "  '' 

Solomon  Temple,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo. 

7,  1818. 
Isaac    Barton,   V.  Pres't    (del.  &   Treas'r 

Abolition  Convention)  Phila,  12  mo.  7, 

Simon  Wilmer,   Swedesborough,  N.   J.,  12 

mo.  7,  1818. 
Joseph  E.  Mcllhenny,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  22, 

Thomas  G.  West,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  22.  181 9. 
Geo.  D.  B.   Keim,  Reading,  Pa.,  3  mo.  22, 

Wm.  Mcllhenny,  Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  22, 

A.  Benezet    Cleaveland,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo. 

22,  1819. 
Wm.  P.  Richards,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3 mo.  22,  1819. 
John  Bechtel,  "  " 

Joshua  Wright,  "  " 

Isaac  Ellis,  Montgomery  Co.,  " 

Wm.  Kirk,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  " 

David  J.  Snethan,  N.  L.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo. 
Benj.  Stevens,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  22,  1819. 
James  Givan,  "  " 

Andrew  Miller,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  7,  1819. 
John   S.    Pearson,  near  Reading,  Pa.,  9  mo. 

7,  1819. 
Hezekiah  P.  Sampson,  Phila.,  9  mo.  7,  1819. 
Dr.  Geo.  S.  Schott,     "  " 

George  Campbell,       "  "" 


Wm.  A.  Budd,  Phila.,  9  mo.  7,  1819. 
Thomas  J.  Carlisle,     "  " 

James  Hansel],  "  " 

George  Widdifield,      "  " 

Caleb  Carmalt,  Jr.,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo. 

7,  1819. 
Curtis  Taylor,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  7,  1819. 
Wm.  Harris,  ''  " 

John  Antrim,  "  " 

James  Rogers,  "  " 

Thomas  Hale,  "  " 

Joseph  H.  Smith,      "  " 

Joseph  Lukens,  "  " 

Peter  Wright,  Treas'r,   (del.),  9  mo.   7, 

Richard   B.   Bowdle,   Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.   7, 

Jacob    T.    Bunting,    Phila.,    Pa.,    9    mo.   7, 

Thomas  Ridgway,  Sec'y,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa., 

3  mo.  5,  1 82 1. 
John  Wilson,  Whitemarsh,  Montgomery  Co., 

Pa.,  12  mo.  24,  1819. 
Alan  W.  Corson,  Whitemarsh,  Montg'y  Co., 

12  mo.  24,  1819. 
Isaac  Jeanes,  Whitemarsh,  Montg'y  Co.,  12 

mo.  24,  1819. 
Wm.  Jeanes,  Whitemarsh,  Montg'y  Co.,  12 

mo.  24,  1 8 19. 
Samuel  Felty,  Whitemarsh,  Montg'y  Co.,  12 

mo.  24,  1S19. 
David   Wilson,   Whitemarsh,    Montg'y  Co., 

12  mo.  24,  1819. 
Samuel  Malsby,  Plymouth,   Montg'y  Co.,  12 

mo.  24,  1819. 
John  Henderson,  Esq.,  Norristown,  Pa.,   12 

mo.  24,  1 81 9. 
Joseph  Thomas,  Norristown,  Pa.,  11  mo.  24, 

Dr.   Isaac  Iluddleston,  Norristown,  Pa.,  12 

mo.  24,  1819. 
Jacob  Albertson,  Plymouth,  Montg'y  Co.,  12 

mo.  24,  1819. 
Dr.    Joseph    Leedom,    Plymouth,    Montg'y 

Co.,  12  mo.  24,  1819. 
Wrm.  Ellis,  Norristown,  Pa.,  12  mo.  24,  1819. 
Jonathan  Ellis,         "  " 

Amos  R.  Ellis,  White  Plains,  " 

Hiram   McNeil,    Esq.,    Moreland,    Montg'y 

Co.,  12  mo.  24,  1 8 19. 
Justus  Sheetz,  Montgomery  Co.,  Pa.,  12  mo. 

24,  1819. 
Isaac  Bellangee,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  24, 1819. 
Samuel    MASON,   Jr.,    Sec'y,  Philadelphia, 

Pa.,  12  mo.  24,  1819. 
David  Coggins,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  24,  1819. 
John  Simmons,  "  " 

Isaac  Jackson,  Reading,  Pa.,  " 

John  M.  Ogden,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  13,  1S20. 
Jonathan  Conard,  "  " 

James  W.  Murray,  (Att'y,  del.)  Phila.,  Pa., 

3  mo.   13,  1820. 
John  Keating,  Jr.,  (Att'y,  del.),  Phila.,  Pa., 

3  mo.   13,  1820. 
John    Coles    Lowber,    (Att'y,   del.),    Phila., 

Pa.,  3  mo.  13,  1820. 
Thomas    Earle,    V.    Pres't,   (del.),  Phila., 

Pa.,  3  mo.  13,  1820. 
Isaac  Barker,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  13,  1S20. 
Joshua  Kimbe?,       "  6  mo.  5,  1820. 

Peter  Lehman,  "  " 

Samuel  White,  "  " 

John  B.  Ellison,       "  " 

Robert  Ellison.         "  " 

John  Collard,  Kensington,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo. 

5.  1820. 
John    B.    Chapman,    Northumberland    Co., 

6  mo.  5,  1820. 
Dr.  John  M.  Lynn,    Phila.,  Pa.,    9   mo.  26, 

Gen.  Wm.  Duncan,  Phila.,   Pa.,  9  mo.  26, 

Lewis  Reese,  Reading,  Pa.,  12  mo.  iS,  1S20. 
Benj.  Davis,  "  " 

Thomas  Lewis,  Robinson  Township,  Berks 

Co.,  12  mo.  18,  1820. 
Chas.   Miner,  West  Chester,  Pa.,  12  mo.  18, 

Wm.   H.    Dillingham,  Esq  ,  West  Chester, 

Pa.,  12  mo.    18,  1820. 
John  Paxson,  Bensalem,  Bucks  Co.,  12  mo. 

18,  1820. 
Daniel  Neall,  V.  Pres't,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12 

mo.  18,  1820. 
Harman   Yerkes,   Jr.,   Whitemarsh,  Pa.,  12 

mo.  18.  1820. 
Joseph   P.   Norris,  Jr.,   (del.),   Phila.,  Pa.,  3 

mo.  5,  1821. 
Edward  B.  Garrigues,  Sec'y,  (del),  Phila., 

Pa.,  3  mo.  5,  1821. 
Wm.    Baker,    (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.   5, 

Jesse  W.  Newport,  (del.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo. 

5,  1821. 
John  Livezey,  Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  5,  1821. 
Aquila  Bolton,  "  " 

James  Hutchinson,    "  " 

Aaron  P.  Wright,       "  " 

Wm.  J.  Brooks,  W.  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  5, 1821. 
Jason  L.  Fennimore,  "  " 

Thomas  Penrose,  "  " 

George  Getz,  Reading,  Pa.,  " 

Walker  Moore,  Delaware,  6  mo.  18,  182 1. 
Joseph  Phipps,  Whitemarsh,  Pa.,  6  mo.   iS, 

Joseph  Knight,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  18,  1821 


Joseph  Evans,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  18,  1821. 

Henry  Woodman,  Tredemn,  " 

Wm.  R.  Smith,  Phila.,  Pa., 

Samuel  Budd,  " 

Hudson  Middleton,     " 

Samuel  F.  Moore,       "  " 

Dr.  Edwin  P.  Atlee,  Sec'y,  (del.  and  Sec'y 

of  Abolition  Convention,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12 

mo.  3,  1 82 1. 
Isaac  Elliott,  "  12  mo.  3.  1821. 

Joseph  H.  Smith,  Phila.,  Pa.,  j2mo.  3,  1821. 
John  Sarchett,  " 

[ames  Starr,  Phila,  Pa.,  12  mo.  3,  1821. 
Chas.  W.  Starr,  Phila.,  Pa.,     12  mo.  3,  1821. 
EbenezerLevick,         " 
Jesse  J.  Spencer,  Gwynned,  Montg.  Co.,  Pa., 

12  mo.  3,  1 82 1. 
Evan  Jones,  Gwynned,  Montg.  Co.,  Pa.,  12 

mo.  3,  1821. 
Chas.  Jones,  Norristown,  Pa.,  12  mo.  3,  1 82 1. 
Sam'l  Edwards,  Atty.,  Chester,  Del.  Co.  Pa., 

12  mo.  3,  1 82 1. 
Isaiah  Hacker,    Phila.,  Pa.,    3  mo.  13,  1822, 
David  S.  Brown,  "  " 

Paul  K.  Hubbs, 
John  Jenkins,  " 

Jos.W.  Rowland,  (del.)" 
Benj.  Hanna,  New  Lisbon, O.,  6  mo.  6,  1822. 
Dr.  Benj.  Ellis,   Phila.,  Pa., 
Alex.  McDonald,  "  3  mo.  4,  1821. 

Isaac  Lawrence,  "  " 

Uriah  Hunt,  "  " 

Marshall  Attmore,  "  9  mo.  25,  1823. 
Joseph  Todhunter,  "  12  mo.  25,  1823. 
Wm.  Brown,  P.,  "  3  mo.  30,  1826. 

David  C.  Wood.  "  " 

Thos.  A.  Alexander,     "  " 

Ellwood  Walter,  "  " 

Wm.  J.  Kirk, 
Wm.  S.  Hallowell, 
John  Bouvier,  Esq.,  (del.)  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo. 

30,  1826. 
Wm.    Jones,        Phila.,  Pa.,   6  mo.  27,  1826. 
Samuel   Ross,  "  " 

Isaac  Williamson,  "  " 

Robert  Evans,  "  " 

Edwin  Walter,  Sec'y,  Phila,  Pa.,  6  mo.  27, 

Chas.  S.  Cope,   (del.  and  Sec'y  of  Abolition 

Con.),  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  27,  1826. 
Jesse  Stanley,    Phila.,  Pa.,    6  mo.  27,  1S26. 
Isaac  Albertson,  ,"     .      12  mo.  27,  1827. 

Ezekiel  Birdseye,  Alabama,  " 

Jas.  R.  Wii.son,  Sc'y.  Phila.,  Pa.,       " 
Sam'l  C.  Sheppard,  (del.)   " 
Samuel  Bispham,  "  " 

Milton  Smith,  "  9  mo.  25,  1828. 

Dr.  Caleb  Ash,  "  " 

Enoch  Lewis,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  25,  1828. 
Elliott  Cresson,  "  " 

Chas.  Evans,  (machinist),   "  " 

Samuel  C.  Cooper,  "  " 

James  Rowland,  Jr.,  "  '' 

Thomas  Booth,  "  " 

James  H.  Lord,  ''  6  mo.  25,  1829. 

Wm.  Pritchett,  "  " 

Chas.  Alexander,  "  " 

Joseph  Sill,  "  " 

Wm.  Yates,  "  " 

Dr.  George  Harris, 

Samuel  Clarke  Atkinson,  "  10  mo.  7,  1S30. 
Joshua  C.  Jenkins,  " 

Joshua  T.  Jeanes,  V.  Pres't,  Phila,   Pa.,  10 

mo.  7,  1S30. 
Joseph  R.  Bolton,  Phila.,  Pa.,  10  mo.  7,  1830. 
Dr.  Geo.  Burroughs,  "  " 

Wm.  L.  Ward,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  30,  1831. 
John  Paul,  Jr.,  "  3  mo.  29,  1832. 

Thomas  Bowman,        "  " 

Dr.  Robert   H.  Rose,   Silver  Lake,  Susq'na 

Co.,  3  mo.  29,  1832. 
Wm.  S.  Hansell,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  12,  1832. 
Thomas  George,  "  " 

Dr.  Isaac  Parrish,  V.  Pres't,   Phila.,  Pa., 

9  mo.  27,  1832. 
George  Sharswood,  Esq.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo. 

27,  1832. 

Benj.  W.  Bracken,  Phila,  Pa.,  9  mo.  27, 1832. 
Daniel  Maule,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  27,  1832. 
Dillwyn  Parrish,  Pres't,  (del.)  Phila,  Pa., 

12  mo.  27,  1832. 
Thomas  Winn,    Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  28,  1833. 
George  Griscom,  Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo. 

28,  1833. 

Matthew  Semple,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  28,  1833. 
Stacy  Gauntt,  "  '' 

Dr.  Fred  Turnpenny,     "  " 

Wm.  A.  Cochran,  "  " 

Israel  Corbit,  "       9  mo.  26,  1833. 

Chas.  Gilpin,  Phila,  Pa.,  9  mo.  26,  1833. 
Wm.  Henry,  "  " 

Wm.  Lloyd  Garrison,   Boston,  Mass.,  9  mo. 

26,  1833. 
Arnold  Buffum,  Boston,  Mass.  " 

Benj.  C.  Bacon,  Sec'y,  Boston,  Mass.,  after- 
wards Phila,  Pa.,  9  mo.  26,  1833. 
John  G.  Whittier,  Amesbury,   Mass.,  9  mo. 

26,  1833. 
Samuel  J.  May,  Brooklyn,  Conn.,  9  mo.  26, 

Simeon  Jocelyn,  New  Haven,  Mass.,  9  mo. 

26,  1833. 
Arthur  Tappan,  New  York,  9  mo.  26,  1833. 
Chas.  W.  Dennison,     "  " 

Benj.  Lundy,  (del.)  Maryland,  " 

James  Wood,    Phila.,  Pa.,   12  mo.  26,  1833. 


Wm.  Dorsey,  Phila,  Pa.,  12  mo.  26,  1833. 

Caleu  Clothier,  Treas.,  Phila,  3  mo.  27, 

Robert  Alsop,  "  3  mo.  27,  1834. 

Wm.  J.  Wainwright,  "  9  mo    25,  1834. 

Clayton  Gaskill,  "  " 

Wm.  Whitman,  "  " 

Wm.  C  Betts,  Sec'y,  "  " 

Joseph  Roberts,  Jr.,     "  6  mo.  25,  1835. 

Benj.  S.  Jones,  "  3  mo.  31,  1836. 

Chas.  Wise,  Libr'an,  "  " 

Chas.  Evans,  "  " 

Wm    A.  Garrigues,  (del.)  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo. 

Chas.  C.Jackson,  Phila,  Pa. ,3  mo.  31,  1836. 

George  Pennock,  "  '• 

John  Sharp,  Jr.,  "  9  mo.  30,  1836. 

George  H   Stuart,        "  " 

Edward  Hopper,  Sec'y,   Phila,  Pa.,  9  mo. 
30,  1836. 

Lewis  C.  Gunn,  Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa.,  (now  of 
Cala.)   9  mo.  30,  1836. 

Wm.  Harned,  V.  Pres't,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo. 
30,  1836. 

James  M.  Jackson,  Phila.,   Pa.,    9  mo.  30, 

Wm.  H.  Scott,  (del.)  Phila.,  Pa.,   9  mo.  30, 

John  Thomason,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  30,  1836. 

Abijab  W.  Thayer,         "  " 

Edward  M.Davis,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  29, 1836. 
Wm.  Eyre,  "      12  mo.  29,  1836. 

George  Luther,  "  '• 

Rev.  Henry  Grew,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  30, 1837. 

David  Knowles,  "        3  mo.  30,  1837. 

John  V.  Wilson,  "         3  mo.  30,  1837. 

Warner  Justice,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  30,  1837. 
Wm.  Sloanaker,  "  " 

Sylvanus  Root,  "  " 

( rilbertS.  Pryor,  Phila,  Pa.,  now  of  Si.  Louis 

Mo.,  3  mo.  30,  1837. 
Dr.  Joshua  Rhoads,  Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa.,  now 

of  Jacksonville,  111  ,  3  mo.  30,  1837. 
Dan'l  McLaughlin,  Phila..  Pa.,3  mo.  30, 1837. 
George  Alsop,    Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  30,  1837. 
Dr.  Alfred  Woodward,  "  '< 

Wm.  H.  Elli;,, 

Wm.  Johns,  "  '' 

Benj.  J.  Leedom,  "  •' 

John  Longstreth,  " 

Emlen  Stackhouse,         "  " 

John  P.  Crozier,  Ashton  Ridge,  Del.  Co.,  3 

mo.  30,  1837. 
Wm.  S.  Lower,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  30,  1837. 
Martin  Thayer,  Phila.,  Pa.,    3  mo.  30,  18^7. 
Joshua  Mitchell,  "  1  mo.  26,  183S. 

Wm.  Lindsay,  "  3  mo.  29,  1838. 

Chas.  II.  Thorne,  "  " 

Eli  Dillin,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  28,  1838. 

,  Daniel  Neall,  Jr.,  Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo. 
27,  1838. 

Norwood  Penrose,        "  4  mo.  11,  1839. 

Richard  Vaux,  "  " 

Samuel  C.  Betts,  "  6  mo.  27,  1839. 

Henry  Cressman,         "         12  mo.  26,  1839. 

John  Houghton,  "  7  mo.     9,  1840. 

Chas.  C.  Burleigh,       "  9  mo.  24,  1S40. 

Robert  E.  Evans,         *'        12  mo.  31,  1840. 

Wm.  D.  Parrish,   Sec'y,    Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo. 
25,  1841. 

Chas.  D.  Cleaveland,  Phila.,  Pa.,   6   mo.  30, 

Simeon  Collins,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  30,  1842. 

Elijah  M.  Neall,  "  6  mo.  30,  1842. 

Stephen  Byerly,  "  " 

Win    W.  Cansler,         "  " 

James  Paul,  Bucks  Co.,  Pa.,  " 

T  Ellwood  Chapman,  Vice-Prest.,  Phila., 
Pa.,  6  mo.  30,    1842. 

Thomas  Hansell,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  30,  1842. 

David  White,  "  " 

John  N.  Ackley,  "  ■' 

Amos  Stackhouse,  "  " 

Rollin  II.  Morgan,  "  " 

Joseph  Lindsay,  Sec'y, "  " 

Samuel  D.  Hastings.       "  now  of  Wis- 

consin, 6  mo.  30,  1842. 

Wm.  Thompson,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  30,  1S42. 

Robert  Purvis,  "  " 

:  1  s,  Vice-Prest.,   Phila.,    Pa., 
6  mo.  30,  1842. 

J.  Miller  MeKim,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  27,  1S43. 

John  D.  Griscom,  "       6  mo.  27,  1843. 

HAWORTH  WETHERALD,  Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa., 
6  mo.  27,  1843. 

James  P.  Ellis,  Phila.,  Pa..  12  mo.  28,  1843. 

Hiram  S    Gilmore,  Cincinnati,  ().,  12  mo.  28, 

Edward  Lewis,  Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  28, 

Theodore   L.   Littlefield,   Phila.,  Pa.,   3  mo. 

28,  1844. 
Wm.  C.  Ivins,  Phila.,  Pa.,     3  mo.  28,  1844. 
Wm.  W.  Moore,         "  " 

Lewis  Thompsou,  Phila.,  Pa.,  71110.  5,  1844. 
Stephen  E.  Merrihew,  Phila.,   Pa.,  7    mo.    5. 

Henry  Kirk  White  Clarke,  Phila.  Pa.,  7  mo. 

5,  1844. 
Henry  Peterson,  Phila..  Pa.,   7  mo-  5    1844. 
Samuel  Porter,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  5  ,  1844. 
Stacy  Taylor,  "       12  mo.  26,  1844. 

Rev.  Lucius  C.  Matlack,  Phila.,  Pa.,   3  mo. 

27,  1845. 
Dr.  Wm.  Elder,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  26,  1846. 
Wm.  B.  Thomas,  Phila.,  Pa.,6mo.25,  1846. 
Jacob  B.Shannon,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  25,  1846. 
Win.  J.  Mullen,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  25,    1,846. 


Truman  B.  Shew,  Phila.,  Pa.,  121110.31,  1846. 
Robert  Stackhouse,       "  " 

Passmore  Williamson,  Sec'y,   Phila.,   Pa., 

3  mo.  25,  1847. 
Wm.  J.  Canby,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  24,  1847. 
Daniel  L.  Miller,  Jr.,  "  3  mo.  30,   1848. 

George  D.  Parrish,       "  " 

Samuel  R.  Shipley,     "  6  mo.  29,  1848. 

Edward  Parrish,  "         9  mo.  29,  1848. 

Dr.  Alfred  L.  Kennedy,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  29, 

Ezekiel  Jackson,  "        3  mo.  29,  1849. 

Toseph  Healey,  Sec'y,"        6  mo.  27,  1850. 
Samuel  W.  Townsend,  Phila.,  Pa.,  7  mo.  15, 

Dr.  Wm.  P.  Tilden,  California,  7  mo.  15,  1852. 
Cyrus  Whitson,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  31,  1853. 
John  Sneddon,  "        3  mo.  31,  1853. 

Joseph  M.  Truman,  Jr.,  Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa., 

12  mo.  29,  1853. 
Jonathan  Roberts,  Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  29, 

George  W.Taylor,  Phila.,  now  of  Chester  Co., 

Co.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  29,  1853. 

Samuel  Parrish,  Phila.,  Pa  ,  12  mo.  29,  1853. 

Caleb  H.  Needles, 

Wm.  Birney,  "  " 

George  Orr,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  30,  1854. 

Pliny  Earle  Chase,  Phila.,  Pa.,  4  mo.  5,  1855. 

Joshua  L.  Hallowell,    Phila.,    Pa.,   4  mo.  5, 

Llewellyn  Truman,  Phila.,  Pa.,  41110.  2,  1856. 
Augustus  B.  Shipley,  Phila.,  Pa.,41110.  2, 1856. 
Marmaduke  C.  Cope,  Phila.,  6  mo.  26,  1856. 
Anthony  M.  Kimber,  "  •"  '' 

Francis  H.  Ray,  New  York,  3  mo.  26,  1857. 
H.  Ryland  Warriner,   Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  25, 

Spencer  Roberts,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  25,  1858. 
Joseph  Yardley,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  30,  185S. 
Amos  Hillborn,  Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  30, 

Reuben  Tomlinson,  Phila.,  Pa.,  now  of  South 

Carolina,  9  mo-  30,  1858. 
Richard  P.  Hallowell,  Boston,  Mass  ,  9  mo. 

30,  1858. 
Samuel  S.  Ash,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  30,  1858. 
Edward  N.  Hallowell,  Phila.,  Pa.,  afterwards 

of  Boston,  Mass.,  3  mo.  31,  1859. 
Enoch  Lewis.  Jr.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  31,  1859. 
Thomas  W.  Braidwood,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6  mo.  30, 

Jas.  M'.  Walton,  Phila.,  Pa.,    12  mo.  29,1859. 
Edward  H.  Steel,  Phila.,  Pa.,  i2mo.  29,1859. 
Harrison  Dixon,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo.  29,  1859. 
Wm.  Heacock,  Sec'y,  ''  "  '' 

Lukens  Webster,  Sec'y,  Phila.,  Pa.,  12  mo. 

29,  1859. 

James  G.  Thompson,  now  of  South  Carolina, 

12  mo.  29,  1859. 
Wm.  W.  Justice,  now  of  S.  Carolina,  12  mo. 

29,   1859. 
Jonathan  Roberts,  Jr.,    "      12  mo.  29,  1853. 
Wm.  Birney,  "  " 

George  Orr,  "        3  mo.  30,  1854. 

Isaac H.  Clothier,  Phila.,  Pa.,  6 mo.  28,  i860. 
Dr.  Jas.  Truman,  "  " 

Joseph  Wood,  "  " 

Chas.  Sumner,  Mass.,  " 

Owen  Lovejoy,  Illinois,  " 

Rev.  John  G.  Fee,  Kentucky, 
Joshua  R.  Giddings,  Ohio, 
Frederick   Douglass,    Washington,    D.  C,    6 

mo.'  28,  i860. 
George  Thompson,  England,  6  mo.  28,  i860. 
Thos.  M.Coleman,  Phila.,  Pa.,  9  mo.  25, 1S62. 
Augustus  Simon,  " 

Geo.  E.Baker,  Washington,  D.C.,  12  mo.  26, 

William  M.  Levick,  Phila.,  Pa.,         " 
Macpherson  Saunders,  " 

Wm.  Forster  Mitchell,  Lynn,  Mass.,  " 
Geo.  N.  Hobensack,  Phila.  Pa.,  6 mo.  25, 1863. 
Marcellus  Balderston,        " 
Samuel  E.  Dickinson,       " 
John  Moore,  "     9  mo.  24,  1863. 

Wm.  Folwell,  "     3  mo.  31,  1864. 

Alfred  H.  Love,  "     6  mo.  30,  1864. 

Joseph  R    Rhoads,  " 

Henry  M.  Laing,  "     9  mo.  29,  1864. 

Dr.  Geo.  Truman,  "  " 

Oliver  H.  Wilson,  "  " 

Joseph  P.  Cooper,  "     3  mo.  30,  1865. 

Mordecai  Buzby,  "   12  mo.  28,  1865. 

Charles  Lewars,  " 

Peter  K.  Landis,  "  " 

Hector  Mcintosh,  "     3  mo.  29,  1866. 

John  W.  Hum,  " 

Franklin  S.  Wilson,  " 

Abraham  W.  Haines,         " 
John  C.  Savery, 

Samuel  H.  Gartley,  "     9  mo.  27,  1866. 

John  A.  Robinson, 

William  R.  Chapman,        "  " 

Dr.  Wm.  Savery,  " 

Benjamin  P.  Hunt,  "   12  mo.  27,  1866. 

Edwin  L.  Dickinson,  Wash.,  D.C.,   " 
Henry  C.  Phillips,  Phila.,  Pa.,  " 

Samuel  Conard,  Phila.,  Pa.,  3  mo.  28,  1S67. 
Robert  R.  Corson,  "    12  mo    26,1867. 

William  Still,  " 

Octavius  V.  Catto,  " 

Ebenezer  D.  Bassett,  Phila.,  12  mo.  26,  1867. 
Jacob  C.  White,  Jr., 
Stephen  Smith, 
William  Whipper, 

mo.  z6;  186S 



State  House,  Boston,  March  29th,  1875. 

My  Dear  friend  StVl: — I  have  just  received  your  note  of  the  27th, 
with  printed. invitation  of  The  Pennsylvania  Society  for  Promoting  the 
Abolition  of  Slavery,  &c.  &c,  to  attend  the  Centennial  Anniversary  of 
the  Society,  in  Philadelphia,  on  the  14th  of  April  next.  I  thank  you, 
individually  and  as  one  of  the  Commi'tee  of  Arrangements,  for  kind  re- 
membrance of  me  and  for  the  honor  done  to  me  by  your  invitation. 

How  full  of  wonderful  history  is  the  Century' now  just  chsing;  how- 
dark  with  shame  to  vast  numbers  who  once  were  deemed  chiefs  and 
leaders  of  the  Nation  in  State  and  in  Church;  but  how  bright  with  honors 
and  glorious  triumphs  to  that  grand  old  Society,  in  whose  name  and  be- 
half you  are  now  privileged  to  act!  From  the  days  of  its  infancy,  when 
Benjamin  Franklin  was  its  first  President  and  Dr.  Rush  was  a  member- 
ship in  himself,  down  through  the  darkest  days  of  Slavery's  insolent 
domination  and  those  of  its  ignominious  downfall  in  the  midst  of  treason 
and  rebellion — and  to  the  present  hour,  when  its  arduous,  perilous,  coura- 
geous labors  have  been  spread  over  One  Hundred  Years,  and  it  is  euter- 
ing  into  the  reward  of  those  labors,  — it  has  deserved  well  of  the  Country 
and  of  Mankind  ;  it  has  made  for  itself  a  most  honorable  record ; — "the 
hi'  ~>ing  of  him  who  was  ready  to  perish"  has  been  continually  upon  it,  in 
all  its  years  ;  and  it  may  well  receive  now,  from  every  friend  of  our  coun- 
try, from  every  friend  of  a  true  and  broad  humanity,  the  greeting,  "Well 
done,  good  and  faithful  servant!" 

My  work  here  forbids  my  accepting  your  invitation,  which  otherwise  I 
would  joyfully  do.  My  heartiest  good  wishes  are  yours  for  a  pleasant  and 
absolutely  successful  occasion — when  it  shall  seem  to  you  all  to  be  the 
blessed  in-gathering  of  the  harvest  of  the  seed  sown  in  such  darkness  and 
discouragement  one  hundred  years  ago. 

With  respect  and  aff.  ctionate  regard.     Your  friend, 

S  \Mri:r,  May. 

AYkst  New  Brtdgeton", 

Stati  n  Island,  N.  Y.,  March  25,  1875. 
Mr.  William  Stile. 

My  Dear  Sir:— I  have  your  very  kind  note  of  the  20th,  and  the  hand- 
some copy  of  your  book,  for  which  1  thank  you  sincereiy.     It  is,  as  I  see, 
a  unique  chapter  of  our  history,  and  an  almost  indispensable  supplement 
5  67 


to  Mr.  Wilsons  History  of  the  Slave  Power,  showing,  as  it  does,  the  nature 
of  that  cruel  wrong,  aud  the  heroism  of  its  victims  and  their  friends. 

Your  invitation  to  the  Centennial  meeting  of  the  14th  of  April,  is  very 
tempting,  and  I  would  most  gladly  join  you  and  your  associates  in  com- 
memorating your  good  Avork.  But  I  have  been  long  engaged  to  be  in 
Massachusetts  on  the  19th,  and,  with  ray  other  necessary  duties,  it  would 
be  impossible  for  me  to  be  with  you.  But  you  will  be  sure  of  my  hearty 
sympathy  and  God-speed,  as  in  every  word  aud  deed  for  the  elevation  of 
every  class  of  your  countrymen. 

With  great  regard,  very  faithfully  yours, 

George  William  Curtis. 

Kaolin,  Pa.,  4th  Mo.  12th,  1875. 
William  Still,  Chairman,  etc: 

Dear  friend : — Thy  letter  of  invitation  to  the  Centennial  Anniversary 
of  "  The  Pennsylvania  Society  for  Promoting  the  Abolition  of  Slavery, 
etc.,"  signed  by  thee  and  by  my  friends,  Dillwyn  Parrish,  Passmore 
Williamson,  Joseph  M.  Truman,  Jr.,  and  Henry  M.  Laing,  also  ;  together 
with  a  copy  of  the  programme  and  a  ticket  of  admission  to  the  platform, 
have  been  received.  It  will  afford  me  pleasure  thus  to  unite  with  my  anti- 
slavery  friends  and  coadjutors  on  that  occasion. 

Having  in  my  minority,  half  a  century  ago,  felt  deeply  the  wrongs 
imposed  on  so  large  a  portion  of  my  fellow- creatures,  so  unjustly  held  in 
slavery,  I  then  deemed  it  my  duty  to  abstain  as  far  as  possible  from  the 
products  obtained  by  slave  labor;  and  it  has  ever  since  seemed  to  me  to 
be  a  proper  Christian  testimony  against  that  "  sum  of  all  villainies." 

As  thou  and  all  the  rest  of  the  signers  of  the  invitation,  are  well 
acquainted  with  my  twenty  years'  effort  in  Philadelphia,  to  promote  the 
free  labor  testimony,  I  need  only  to  allude  to  it;  if,  indeed,  a  becoming 
modesty  should  not  even  preclude  any  reference  to  my  connection  with  it 
at  all. 

It  will  afford  me  great  pleasure  to  find  present,  in  the  capacity  of  chair- 
man, the  Hon.  Henry  Wilson,  Vice  President  of  the  United  States,  whom 
I  should  gladly  welcome  as  our  next  President  of  the  TJ.  S.  It  will  be 
very  pleasant  also,  to  meet  those  who  are  expected  to  speak  on  the  occa- 
sion. Very  truly  thy  friend, 

Geo.  W.  Taylor. 

New  York,  4th  Mo.  9,  1875. 
Dillwyn  Parrish,  William  Still,  and  others,  Committee  of  Arrange- 
ments : 
Dear  friends: — I  find,  since  acknowledging  a  few  days  ago,  the  receipt 
of  your  invitation,  and  expressing  a  purpose  to  attend  your  approaching 
Centennial  Anniversary,  on  the  14th  inst.,  that  I  shall  be  detained  by 
duties  here. 

The  anniversary  which  you  commemorate,  will  have  a  peculiar  and 
exceptional  interest  to  all  who  shared  in  the  labors  of  the  anti-slavery 


conflict,  and  to  all  who  realize  the  philanthropic  need  vvhich  still  remains 
to  aid  those  who  were  so  lately  enslaved,  to  surmount  and  conquer  the 
disabilities  by  which  they  are  still  surrounded. 

While  rejoicing,  as  all  may  and  should,  with  reverent  thanksgiving 
over  the  great  and  beneficent  work  accomplished  in  the  emancipation  or 
four  million  of  slaves,  I  trust  the  members  and  friends  of  your  venerable 
and  truly  honorable  society,  will  still  continue  its  important  and  much- 
needed  efforts  for  "  improving  the  condition  of  the  African  race,"  until 
colored  people  are  also  emancipated  from  the  yet  prevalent,  oppressive, 
cruel,  and  unchristian  spirit  of  caste.  Regretting  that  I  shall  not  have 
the  pleasure  of  meeting  with  you,  a    I  had  hoped, 

I  am  cordially  yours,  Aaron  M.  Powell. 

311  East  G2d  Street,  New  York,  April  11, 1875. 

My  Dear  Brother  Still: — I  have  your  letter  forwarding  to  me  the  invi- 
tation of  the  Committee  of  the  Centennial  Anniversary  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Society  for  Promoting  the  Abolition  of  Slavery,  etc.,  to  be  present, 
and  participate  in  said  Centennial ;  for  which,  please  accept  for  yourself, 
and  others  of  the  Committee,  my  thanks.  I  should  have  made  an  earlier 
reply,  had  I  not  hoped  to  have  been  present  with  you,  which  would  have 
heen  very  gratifying ;  but  finding  that  I  could  not  be,  it  is  due  to  you  that 
I  should  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  invitation. 

Allow  me  to  say  that  although  a  Decade  has  past  since  Chattel  Slavery 
ceased  to  exist  in  our  Country,  and  therefore  the  system,  the  Abolition  of 
which  was  the  prime  ohject  which  led  to  the  formation  and  continuance 
of  your  Society,  yet  I  think  it  is  commendable  in  the  Managers  thereof, 
that  they  have  continued  its  existence  to  its  Centennial  year.  No  other 
former  Philanthropic  Voluntary  Association  connected  with  American 
History  has  lived  to  reach  its  Century;  and  it  will  be  news  to  the 
American  People  that  your  Society  is  a  year  older  than  the  American 
Xation,  as  it  will  that  a  Ceutennial  ago  your  predecessors  associated 
themselves  to  war  against  Slavery. 

Although  Slavery  is  gone,  and  its  victims  are  recognized  in  law  as 
American  Citizens,  and  the  equals  of  other  American  Citizens,  yet  the  sad 
fruits  of  the  system  remaiu ;  in  the  memory,  ignorance  and  moral  turpitude 
which  it  fostered  and  entailed  upon  its  victims;  also  in  the  cherished  er- 
roneous ideas  of  them,  and  the  unchristian  prejudice  toward  them  ;  all  of 
which  to  correct  and  eradicate,  is  the  work  of  years;  and  which  your 
Society,  in  its  future,  may  well  set  itself  to  do ;  a  work  which  involves  as 
well,  the  happiness  of  the  whole  American  People,  as  it  does  the  higher 
manhood,  and  the  progress  and  happiness  of  our  brothers,  the  former  vic- 
tims of  Slavery. 

I  hope  Providence  will  give  you  Sunny  Skies  for  the  occasion,  and  that 
ihe  interest  therein,  will  bring  together  a  goodly  number  of  the  veteran 
workers  for  the  Abolition  of  Slavery,  that  was. 

Respectfully  and  Truly,  Charles  B.  Ray. 


Dedham,  Mass.,  March  9,  1875. 

My  Dear  Mr.  Still : — I  thank  you  very  much  for  the  kind  invitation  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Society  for  Promoting  the  Abolition  of  Slavery,  etc.,  which 
you  have  had  the  goodness  to  forward  to  me.  It  would  give  me  great 
pleasure  to  assist  at  the  Centennial  Anniversary  of  that  Society,  which 
has  numbered  so  many  excellent  and  illustrious  men  among  its  members, 
and  which  has  led  the  way  in  the  moral  warfare  which  has  resulted  in  the 
Abolition  of  Slavery.  But  I  fear  that  it  will  be  quite  impossible  for  me 
to  do  so.  I  trust  that  your  Celebration  will  be  as  successful  as  your 
warmest  wishes  could  hope  for.     I  am,  my  dear  Mr.  Still, 

Very  faithfully  yours, 

Mr.  Wm.  Still.  Edmund  Quincy. 

Boston,  April  8th,  '75. 
W-  Still  and  others  of  the  Pennsylvania  Society  in  behalf  of  the  colored 
race.     Gentlemen  and  Brethren  : — 

Owing  to  some  little  mishap,— a  slight  misnomer  in  the  outward  ad- 
dress of  your  note  inviting  my  attendance  and  participation  in  your  forth- 
coming "Centennial,"  of  the  14th  inst.,  I  did  not  receive  it  till  too  late 
for  such  expression  of  my  sympathy  with  the  occasion  as  I  would  gladly 
have  given  you.  I  regret  also,  to  say  that  I  am,  just  now,  too  much  of  an 
invalid  to  bear  the  fatigue  of  even  so  pleasant  a  journey  as  that  to  which 
you  invite  me,  with  the  prospect,  too,  of  meeting  such  dear  friends  as  Dr 
Furness,  Garrison,  Phillips,  Douglass,  and  Whittier.  But  I  can,  at  least 
assure  you  of  my  cordial  sympathy  with  all  the  benevolent  purposes  you 
entertain  towards  the  colored  race,  as  enumerated  in  your  circular. 

It  is  every  way  fitting  and  right  that  thus  in  "Philadelphia,"  the  city 
of  Brotherly  Love,  as  its  name  imports,  should  centre  and  be  manifest  such 
largeness  of  philanthropy,  and  such  breadth  of  charity !  '  May  God  Al- 
mighty bless  and  prosper  you  therein. 

With  renewed  expression  of  my  regret  at  my  being  unable  to  visit  you 
and  participate  in  your  celebration,  and  with  repetition  of  my  commenda- 
tion of  your  purpose  to  keep  alive  benevolent  action  and  service  toward 
the  colored  population  everywhere,  I  am  your  friend  and  co-laborer, 

John  T.  Sargent. 

Mt.  Pleasant,  Iowa,  4th  Mo.  1,  1875. 
To  the  Committee  of  Arrangements  of  the  Penna.  Abolition  Society. 

Dear  Friends: — Your  invitation  to  "attend  and  participate  in  the  Cen- 
tennial Anniversary"  of  your  Society  was  duly  received  and  the  honor 
highly  appreciated. 

Much  has  been  said  about  the  sacrifices  made  in  effecting  the  Emanci- 
pation of  the  slaves,  and  promoting  the  relief  of  those  American  citizens 
called  Africans. 

I  rejoice  in  the  feeling  that  I  cannot  remember  when  I  was  converted  to 
this  church  of  freedom. 


It  must  have  been  in  the  blood,  for  from  my  first  knowledge  of  the 
institution  of  the  hateful  system  of  slavery  I  loathed  it  as  a  vile  curse  on 
the  earth. 

Notwithstanding  I  have  with  many  better  men  and  women,  been  ana- 
thematized for  participating  in  this  movement,  I  feel  this  day  with 
whiteued  beard,  that  I  have  made  no  sacrifices — but  found  it  all  the  way 
through  a  compensating  business,  and  I  am  richer  for  whatever  I  have 
said  or  done  on  behalf  of  the  oppressed. 

Though  my  tabernacle  of  flesh  will  be  on  the  western  side  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi, my  spirit  will  leap  over  the  prairies  and  mountains  to  mingle 
with,  and  breathe  a  benediction  upon  you,  on  the  deeply  interesting  occa- 
sion of  your  centennial.  I  shall  pray  without  ceasing  that  those  who  cel- 
ebrate the  next,  may  witness  the  entire  extermination  of  slavery  from  the 
world,  and  the  establishment  of  a  code  of  peace  among  the  nations  that 
shall  supercede  forever  the  bloody  scourge  of  war  on  the  battle  field. 

With  very  kind  consideration  I  am  your  cordial  friend, 

Joseph  A.  Dugdale. 

61  W.  17th  Street,  New  York,  April  10, 1874. 
My  Dear  Mr.  Still: 

I  find  that  I  must  forego  the  pleasure  of  attending  the  Centennial  Anni- 
versary of  the  Pennsylvania  Abolition  Society,  to  which  you  so  cordially 
invite  me.  I  very  much  regret  to  lose  such  an  opportunity  of  greeting 
men  and  women,  to  whose  faithful  labors  the  country  is  so  deeply  indebted, 
for  the  extinction  of  American  slavery,  and  for  all  the  blessings  that  have 
followed  that  grand  achievement.  As  your  society  was  the  earliest  of  all 
the  anti-slavery  associations  formed  in  this  country,  so,  also,  I  believe,  is 
it  the  only  one  that  survives  the  accomplishment  of  its  main  purpose,  and 
remains  in  the  field  to  assist  in  the  education  and  development  of  the 
emancipated  class.  That  its  labors  to  this  end  may  be  abundantly  blessed, 
and  that  your  celebration  may  serve  to  deepen  and  intensify  in  the  hearts 
of  the  American  people,  the  love  of  universal  liberty,  is  the  desire  and 
hope  of 

Yours,  fraternally,  Oliver  Johnson. 

103  W.  Springfield  St.,  Boston,  April  8th,  1875. 

My  Dear  Friend,  Wm.  Still : — I  am  very  glad  that  our  friends  of  the 
old  "Pennsylvania  Society  for  Promoting  the  Abolition  of  Slavery  and 
for  the  Relief  of  Free  Negroes  unlawfully  held  in  Bondage,  and  for  Im- 
proving the  condition  of  the  African  Race" — are  going  to  commemorate 
the  Centennial  of  its  formation. 

So  quiet  and  Quaker-like  have  been  the  operations  of  the  Society,  that 
most  of  us,  at  this  distance,  hardly  knew  of  its  existence  and  history,  nor 
of  the  amount  of  good  it  had  been  doing,  in  its  silent,  unobtrusive  way,  for 
so  long  a  period. 


I  tru3t  that  the  very  competent  Committee,  who  have  the  management 
of  the  meeting  in  hand,  and  especially  the  Historical  Orator,  Dr.  Wm. 
Elder, — will  furnish  to  the  world,  from  the  ample  materials  in  their  pos- 
session, a  connected  story  of  the  doings  of  the  Society, — culminating  in 
the  wider  and  better-known  operations  of  the  Anti-slavery  movements  of 
our  own  time. 

I  should  enjoy  very  much  the  meeting  of  dear  old  friends  of  Reform  on 
that  occasion,  but  must  deny  myself  that  pleasure. 

With  kind  remembrances  of  yourself  and  of  your  valuable  work  — the 
"Underground  Railroad,"         I  am  Cordially  Yours, 

Robert  F.  Wallcut. 

Irvington,  Ind.,  April  9,  1875. 
Dear  Mr.  Still: — 

Your  letter  inviting  me  to  attend  the  Centennial  Anniversary  of  "The 
Pennsylvania  Society  for  Promoting  the  Abolition  of  .Slavery,"  on  the  14th 
of  the  present  month,  was  received  a  few  days  since.  It  would  afford 
very  great  pleasure  to  be  able  to  accept  this  invitation,  but  circumstances, 
I  fear,  will  make  it  impracticable.  I  shall,  however,  be  with  you,  at  all 
events,  in  heart.  It  is  certainly  fit  that  the  anniversary  of  this  venerable 
and  historical  Society,  should  be  celebrated.  It  is  fit  that  it  should  pub- 
licly recognize  the  unwelcome  fact  that  its  work  as  yet,  is  only  done  in 
part.  It  is  fit  that  the  surviving  representatives  and  champions  of  the 
Anti  Slavery  cause,  should  hold  this  timely  and  soul-inspiring  re-union, 
and  freely  confer  with  each  other  as  to  the  work  of  the  future,  while 
cherishing  the  precious  memories  of  the  past.  And  it  is  fit  that  they 
should  prepare  "an  authentic,  impartial,  and  comprehensive  record  of 
their  action"  respecting  the  grandest  battle  the  world  has  yet  witnessed, 
for  the  Rights  of  Man.  This  is  a  duty  which  they  owe  alike  to  them- 
selves and  to  their  country,  and  its  postponement  should  not  be  permitted. 

Earnestly  hoping  that  your  gathering  may  be  largely  attended,  and  that 
the  blessing  of  God  may  crown  its  labors,  I  am, 

Very  faithfully  yours, 

Geo.  W.  Julian. 

Newport,  R.  I.,  April  12,  1875. 
Wm.  Still,  Esq  ,  Chairman  of  Committee,  etc. 

Dear  Sir : — It  would  afford  me  great  pleasure  to  meet  the  Pennsylvania 
Society,  and  to  revive  the  memories  of  the  old  times.  So  rapidly  do  the 
years  go  on,  that  it  is  already  hard  to  convince  ourselves  that  slavery  has 
existed  during  our  life-time.  It  seems,  rather,  as  if  its  memories  were  all 
a  dream,  or  as  if  we  had  lived  two  lives.  But  the  work  that  it  did  for 
our  moral  development,  as  individuals,  never  can  be  undone;  and  I  hope 
we  are  all  applying  its  lessons  to  the  reforms  which  are  still  uncompleted. 
Very  cordially  yours,  Thos.  Wentworth  Higginson. 


Charleston,  S.  C,  April  9tii,  '75. 
To  Dillwyn  Parrish  and  others  : — 

Dear  friends: — I  have  been  honored  with  your  invitation  to  attend  the 
Centennial  Anniversary  of  "  the  Pennsylvania  Society  for  promoting  the 
Abolition  of  Slavery  and  for  the  relief  of  Free  Negroes  unlawfully  held 
in  bondage,  and  for  improving  the  condition  of  the  African  Race,"  and 
sincerely  regret  that  it  will  be  impossible  to  meet  with  you  on  that  most 
interesting  occasion.  The  prime  purpose  for  which  the  Society  was  or- 
ganized, as  indicated  in  its  title,  has  been  accomplished  ;  its  secondary 
purpose  (if  it  cau  be  considered  secondary)  the  improvement  of  the  condi- 
tion of  the  African  race,  still  continues  to  call  for  the  most  earnest  and 
intelligent  action  of  the  members  of  this  venerable  Society. 

Venerable!  not  so  much  for  its  years,  as  for  the  character  and  service 
of  those  who  founded  it,  aud  gave  vitality  to  its  beneficent  purposes. 

Full  of  sympathy  for  its  past  attainments,  and  with  what  I  believe  to 
be  its  hopes  for  the  future,  I  would  say  as  my  deliberate  judgment,  after 
an  experience  of  nearly  thirteen  years  in  the  South,  and  with  a  full 
appreciation  of  all  the  details  to  be  overcome,  that  the  highest  hopes 
of  the  Society  with  reference  to  the  improvement  of  the  colored  people 
are  certain  of  fulfilment. 

It  is  wise  to  see  and  understand  all  the  obstacles  in  the  shape  of  igno- 
rance, vice,  and  selfishness,  that  have  to  be  overcome;  but  it  is  foolish  to 
be  able  to  see  nothing  but  these. 

If  the  intelligence  of  the  country  will  do  its  duty  the  future  is  secured. 
But  that  is  a  sham  intelligence  which  seeks  to  justify  its  own  apathy  and 
indifference  by  assertions  of  the  hopelessness  of  attempting  to  remove  the 
ignorance  and  vice  bequeathed  to  us  by  slavery. 

The  more  apparently  hopeless  the  task  the  more  manly  and  earnestly 
it  should  be  encountered,  and  while  the  members  of  our  old  Society  in 
entering  upon  the  second  ceutury  of  its  existence  may  feel  that  an  immense 
work  is  yet  to  be  done,  they  may  also  feel  sure  from  the  past  experience 
of  their  Society  that  to  brave,  and  earnest  hearts,  aud  wise  judgments  no 
work  which  has  for  its  object  the  improvement  of  the  condition  of  man,  is 
impossible  of  accomplishment. 

My  faith  is  unfaltering,  notwithstanding  the  wiles  of  demagogues,  who 
seek  to  abuse  the  confidence  of  the  colored  man  to  his  own  ruin ;  the  bit- 
terness of  that  prejudice  which  seeks  to  crush  him,  and  the  easy  facility 
with  which  he  serves  the  purposes  of  both  these  dangerous  foes,  that  he 
will  yet  make  a  self-respecting  and  useful  citizen.  This  faith  1  hold 
not  because-he  is  a  colored  man,  but  because  he  is  a  man. 

I  am  very  truly  your  friend,  Reuben  Tomlinson. 

Harrisburg,  Pa.,  April  12th,  1875. 
To  William  Still,  Esq  ,  of  Committee  of  Arrangements  for  Anti  Slavery 
Dear  Sir: — Accept  my  thauks  for  invitation  to  be  present  at  your  pro- 
posed re-union.    It  would  give  ine  great  pleasure  to  accept,  but  my  present 


engagements  and  public  business  forbid.  All  honor  to  the  noble  heroes 
and  heroines  of  Liberty,  who  pioneered  the  path  of  the  True  Republic,  and 
to  you,  who  so  assiduously  encouraged  the  victim  of  Oppression  on  his  way 
to  Freedom.     God  bless  the  meeting!      Yours,  very  truly, 

William  Howard  Day. 

Mayor's  Office,  Philadelphia,  March  31st,  1875. 
W.  Still,  Esqr. 

Dear  Sir : — Your  invitation  to  be  present  at  the  "Centennial  Anni- 
versary of  the  Pennsylvania  Society,  fof  Promoting  the  Abolition  of 
Slavery,  and  for  the  Relief  of  Free  Negroes  Unlawfully  held  in  Bondage, 
and  for  Improving  the  condition  of  the  African  Race,"  to  be  celebrated 
on  the  14th  day  of  April  prox.  was  received. 

I  assure  you  and  the  gentlemen  composing  the  Committee  of  Arrange- 
ments, that  it  will  afford  me  much  pleasure  to  be  with  you  on  the  occasion 
designated.  With  respect,  I  am, 

W.  S.  Stokley,  Mayor. 

Hampton,  Va.,  April  2,  1875. 
My  Dear  Mr.  Still  : — 

Your  very  kind  invitation  to  the  Centennial  of  the  Pennsylvania  Aboli- 
tion Society,  is  received.  I  shall  be  there  if  I  can.  The  way  is  hard  y 
clear,  for  I  am  compelled  to  be  in  Boston  at  that  time,  hunting  for  funds 
to  carry  on  this  school — we  are  hard  pressed — necessity  is  upon  us.  Please 
tell  Mr.  Parrish  that  I  am  too  much  the  slave  of  my  work,  to  be  able  to 
attend,  so  far  as  I  can  now  see. 

It  will  be  a  grand  time.  The  Hampton  singers  are  in  the  western  part 
of  New  York  State  now,  and  have  already  made  engagements  to  sing, 
covering  the  14th,  and  several  days  later.  I  am  very  sorry.  We  are  all 
of  us  doing  things  with  all  our  might.         Yours,  sincerely, 

S.  C.  Armstrong. 

Chicago,  April  Gth,  1875. 
Dear  Mr.  Still  : — 

It  would  be  a  great  pleasure  if  time  and  tide  would  permit,  to  come  to 
the  Centennial  of  the  old  Pioneer  Society  for  the  Abolition  of  Slavery. 
But  there  m  no  chance.  I  must  stay  home  and  get  my  share  of  your  good 
time  through  the  papers,  and  send  all  good  wishes  to  and  for  those  who 
have  the  good  luck  to  be  present.  Very  truly  yours, 

Robert  Collyer. 

New  York,  April  2d,  1875. 
Gentlemen : — To  attend  your  celebration  would  give  methesincerest  plea- 
sure.    It  is  precisely  one  of  the  things  I  should  rejoice  in  doing,  to  live  over 
the  glorious  days,  and  to  exchange  congratulations  on  the  grand  achieve- 
ment.    But  an  anniversary  will  keep  me  at  home  on  that  very  day,  the 


14th,  so  that  I  can  only  have  your  thanksgiving  through  sympathy.  I 
shall,  however,  share  it,  sir,  that  way,  and  shall  remember  gratefully,  that 
you  invited  me  to  be  with  you  in  person  as  well  as  in  spirit. 

Sincerely  yours, 

0.  B.  Feothingham. 

Executive  Mansion,  Harrisburg,  Pa. 
William  Still,  Esq.,  No.  700  Arch  St.,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
Dear  Sir: — I  shall  take  great  pleasure  in  attending   the   Centennial 
Anniversary  of  the  Pennsylvania  Society  for  Promoting  the  Abolition  of 
Slavery  on  Wednesday  next,  if  my  health  and  public  engagements  here 
will  permit.  .Respectfully  Yours, 

J.  F.  Hartranft,  Governor. 

Westbury,  4th  Mo.  6,  '75. 

William  Still: 

Dear  friend: — The  kind  invitation  from  the  Committee  of  Arrange- 
ments, to  unite  in  celebrating  the  Centennial  Anniversary;  it  would  give 
us  much  pleasure  to  meet  the  friends  and  laborers  in  the  cause,  and  review 
the  past,  so  full  of  incident,  and  so  full,  too,  of  blessed  and  holy  memories, 
which  are  enshrined  on  our  inner  consciousness ;  but  on  account  of  illness 
in  our  family  circle,  fear  we  shall  have  to  forego  the  pleasure  of  being  with 
you.  Very  respectfully,  etc  , 

Josepii  &  Mary  Post. 

Columbia,  S.  C,  April  5, 1875. 
William  Still,  Esq  ,  Chairman   Centennial  Anniversary. 

Dear  Sir: — I  regret  that  it  will  be  impossible  for  me  to  be  present  at 
the  Centennial  meeting,  and  I  wish,  through  you,  to  offer  my  congratula- 
tions to  those  who  will  be  there  on  the  triumph  of  the  cause  of  universal 
liberty,  which  we  all  had  so  much  at  heart,  and  for  which  we  labored 
when  we  scarcely  dared  hope  for  success. 

The  war  made  many  things  possible;  perhaps  as  curious  as  any  of  the 
changes,  was  that  my  father,  Lewis  Thompson,  should  pass  the  last  years 
of  his  life  in  South  Carolina,  and  die  peacefully  in  the  State,  which,  only 
a  few  years  before,  would  have  hurried  him  and  all  his  abolition  friends 
to  violent  death. 

I  am  editing  a  Republican  newspaper  here.  My  brother  Lewis,  is  an 
army  officer,  now  on  leave  and  visiting  me;  he  also  desires  to  be  remem- 
bered to  the  friends  in  Philadelphia.         Very  truly,  yours, 

James  G.  Thompson. 

Executive  Mansion,  Washington,  April  oth,  1875. 
Mr.  William  Still,  700  Arch  Street,  Phila. 

Sir: — The  President  directs  me  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  note, 
enclosing  invitation  for  the  14th  inst,  and  to  convey  to  you  and  the  mem- 


bers  of  the  Committee,  many  thanks  for  the  kind  attention.     He  regrets 
that  he  will  be  unable  to  visit  Philadelphia  at  that  time. 
I  am  Sir,  very  respectfully  yours, 

Levi  P.  Luckey,  Secretary. 

Philadelphia,  Pa.,  April  1st,  1875. 
William  Still,  Esq.,  Chairman. 

My  Dear  Sir: — I  shall  be  much  pleased  to  accept  the  kind  invitation 
with  which  you  have  honored  me  to  be  present  at  the  Centennial  Anni- 
versary of  " The  Pennsylvania  Society  for  Promoting  the  Abolition  of 
Slavery  and  the  Relief  of  Free  Negroes  Unlawfully  held  in  Bondage,  and 
for  improving  the  Condition  of  the  African  Race."  The  fact  of  this  anni- 
versary occurring  on  the  fourteenth  of  April,  cannot  fail  to  add  to  the 
interest  of  the  occasion.  Yo  urs,  very  respectfully, 

Rufus  Saxton. 

Lincoln,  Loudoun  Co.,  Va.,  4th  month,  6ih,  1875. 

To   Dillwyn   Parrish,    William    Still,    Passmore    Williamson, 
Joseph  M.  Truman,  Jr.,  Henry  M.  Lang,  Philadelphia. 

Respected  friends:— I  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  kind  invitation 
to  attend  the  Centennial  Anniversary  of  the  Pennsylvania  Society,  for 
Promoting  the  Abolition  of  Slavery.  It  would  give  me  much  pleasure 
to  participate  in  the  meetings  proposed  to  be  held,  but  I  have  no  prospect 
of  being  present,  and  mutt  content  myself  with  the  expression  of  my 
sincere  desire  that  your  proceedings  may  tend  to  elucidate  and  preserve, 
for  the  benefit  of  posterity,  many  important  facts  in  the  history  of  the 
Anti-Slavery  cause. 

That  great  system  of  wrong,  American  Slavery,  has  come  to  an  end  ; 
not  in  the  way  that  we  anticipated,  but  in  the  ordering  of  Divine  Provi- 
dence, by  means  that  could  not  be  foreseen  by  human  wisdom,  nor  frus- 
trated by  human  depravity. 

There  remains  yet  a  great  work  to  be  done,  in  promoting  the  moral 
elevation  and  religious  instruction  of  the  colored  race  in  this  country. 
On  the  success  of  this  wnrk  depends  not  only  their  welfare,  but  the  pros- 
perity of  the  American  Union,  whh-h  can  only  be  sustained  by  the  virtue 
and  intelligence  of  the  people.  Very  Respectfully  your  friend, 

Saml.  M.  Janney. 



By  Samuel  M.  Janney. 

As  one  of  the  purposes  intended  by  the  Pennsylvania  Abolition  Society, 
in  celebrating  their  Centennial  Anniversary,  is  "to  present  an  impaitial 
and  comprehensive  record  of  their  action,  as  well  as  a  general  history  of 

the  Anti-Slavery  cause,"  I  deem  it  proper  to  give  some  account  of  efforts 
made  to  promote  that  cause  in  the  District  of  Columbia  and  the  northern 
part  of  Virginia. 

About  fifty  years  ago,  there  existed  in  Washington  city  an  Anti-Slavery 
Society,  the  title  of  which  I  do  not  remember,  and  in  Alexandria,  then  a 
part  of  the  District  of  Columbia,  we  had  an  association  composed  mostly 
of  Friends,  and  a  few  Methodists,  called  the  Benevolent  Society  of  Alex- 
andria, for  ameliorating  and  improving  the  condition  of  the  people  of 
color.  To  rescue  from  the  possession  of  slave  traders  persons  illegally 
held  in  bondage,  and  to  enlighten  the  public  mind  in  regard  to  the  evils 
of  slavery,  were  two  of  the  main  objects  we  had  in  view. 

I  think  these  Societies  were,  at  one  time,  represented  in  a  convention 
held  in  Philadelphia,  by  invitation  of  the  Pennsylvania  Abolition  Society. 

At  that  time  the  domestic  slave  trade  was  actively  carried  on  in  Wash- 
ington and  Alexandria,  and  among  its  victims  were  some  who  were 
free-born,  or  were  slaves  only  for  a  term  of  years.  These  we  sometimes 
succeeded  in  rescuing  by  a  legal  process,  but  not  unfrequently,  they  were 
carried  off  by  the  traders  before  we  received  information  of  their  captivity. 
On  behalf  of  the  Benevolent  Society  a  series  of  essays  were  written  on 
slavery  and  the  domestic  slave  trade,  which,  in  the  year  1827,  were  pub- 
lished in  the  Alexandria  Gazette,  a  paper  that  had  a  considerable  circu- 
lation in  Virginia.  The  opposition  to  such  publications  was  not  then  so 
great  in  Virginia,  as  it  became  a  few  years  later,  and  the  views  we  pro- 
mulgated, adverse  to  Slavery,  were  read  without  producing  any  demon- 
strations of  violence.  Slavery  was  then  generally  acknowledged  to  be  an 
evil  entailed  upon  us  by  former  generations,  which,  it  was  alleged,  could 
not  be  removed  without  much  danger:  and  most  of  the  slaveholders  main- 
tained that  the  slaves,  when  liberated,  must  be  colonized  in  some  foreign 

The  Benevolent  Society  of  Alexandria  in  conjunction  with  the  Anti- 
Slavery  Society  in  Washington,  about  the  year  1827,  got  up  a  petition  to 
Congress  for  the  abolition  of  slavery,  and  the  slave  trade  in  the  District 
of  Columbia.  We  obtained  the  signatures  of  about  a  thousand  respect- 
able citizens,  among  whom  were  prominent  merchants  and  judges  of  the 
District  Courts.  I  remember  that  while  soliciting  signatures,  I  called  on 
George  Washington  Park  Custis,  the  proprietor  of  the  Arlington  estate. 
He  treated  me  with  civility,  and  admitted  the  evils  of  slavery,  but  de- 
clined to  sign  the  petition.  He  spoke  freely  of  the  unproductiveness  of 
-lave  labor,  and  said,  "I  am  accounted  the  third  among  the  richest  men 
of  Virginia,  and  yet  I  seldom  have  a  dollar."  His  patriotism  shone  forth 
in  his  eloquent  orations,  but  he  made  no  efforts,  nor  submitted  to  any 
sacrifices  to  remove  an  evil  that,  I  believe,  be  sincerely  deplored.  He  did, 
however,  follow  the  example  of  Washington,  by  providing  in  his  will  for 
the  liberation  of  his  slaves. 

Our  petition  was  presented  to  Congress,  and  although  it  seemed  to  pro- 
duce no  immediate  effect,  it  was  in  subsequent  years,  sometimes  referred 
to,  in  the  earnest  debates  that  took  place  on  the  subject  of  Slavery.  We 
did  not  petition  for  the  immediate  abolition  of  Slavery,  which  would  have 


been  a  just  and  safe  measure,  but  in  deference  to  the  prejudices  of  many 
whose  signatures  were  solicited,  we  asked  that  a  law  of  Congress  might  be 
passed,  declaring  that  all  children  of  slaves  born  in  the  District,  after  the 
4th  of  July,  1828,  should  be  free  at  the  age  of  25  years,  andthat  laws 
might  be  enacted  to  prevent  slaves  being  removed  from  the  District,  or 
brought  in  for  sale,  hire  or  transportation.  If  this  measure,  inadequate 
as  it  appears,  had  been  adopted,  it  might  have  led  to  similar  legislation 
in  Maryland  and  Virginia,  and  possibly  the  awful  calamity  of  civil  war 
might  have  been  averted. 

I  have  no  records  to  show  any  further  action  of  the  Anti-Slavery  Asso- 
ciations in  Washington  and  Alexandria.  After  some  years  they  ceased 
to  exist,  but  some  of  those  who  had  been  members  of  them,  continued  to 
feel  the  same  interest  in  the  cause  of  human  liberty,  and  to  manifest  their 
zeal  by  publications  showing  the  disastrous  effects  of  Slavery. 

In  the  years  1844  and  1845,  a  number  of  essays  over  the  signature  of  a 
Virginian  were  published, — showing  the  injustice  and  impolicy  of  Slave- 
holding,  and  pointing  out  the  benefits  that  would  result  from  emancipa- 
tion. Some  of  these  essays  were  published  in  the  Saturday  Visitor  of 
Baltimore,  edited  by  Dr.  J.  E.  Snodgrass  ;  some  in  the  Alexandria  Gazette, 
and  others  in  the  Richmond  Whig,  an  influential  paper  edited  by  J. 
Hampden  Pleasants.  Extra  numbers  of  the  papers  were  purchased  for 
distribution,  and  several  of  the  essays  were  printed  in  pamphlet  form,  and 
extensively  circulated  in  Maryland  and  Virginia. 

The  funds  to  pay  for  printing  were  mostly  contributed  by  Friends  in 

Amesbury,  11th,  4  Mo.,  1875. 
To  Dillwyn  Parish  : 

Dear  Friend :  The  enclosed  document  has  been  forwarded  to  me  by  an 
eminent  lawyer  of  Richmond,  Va.  (also  enclosed)  requesting  me  to  pre- 
sent it  to  the  Centennial  meeting.  It  speaks  for  itself.  Nothing  more 
severely  condemnatory  of  slavery  was  ever  spoken  by  Garrison  or  Sumner, 
or  acted  by  John  Brown,  than  this  noble  and  Christian  testimony  of 
Richard  Randolph,  the  brother  of  John  Randolph,  of  Roanoke. 

Does  it  not  forcibly  recall  that  wonderful  death-scene  so  graphically 
depicted  by  thy  father  who  was  called  to  witness  the  bequest  of  liberty  to 
his  slaves  by  John  Randolph  ?  Surely  there  was  something  noble  and 
generous  in  the  blood  of  those  old  Virginians ! 

If  the  Pennsylvania  Abolition  Society  need  any  justification  of  its 
doings  for  a  century  past  it  is  furnished  by  this  document.  For  its  object 
has  been  to  save  men  from  the  condition  so  sternly  characterized  by  the 
testator  as  barbarous  and  cruel,  and  infamous ;  a  lawless  and  monstrous 

Let  us  thank  the  Divine  Providence  that  we  have  been  permitted  to 
see  the  end  of  the  "  accursed  thing,"  against  which  Richard  Randolph 
bore  his  emphatic  testimony.  I  am  truly  thy  friend, 

John  G.  Whittier. 


richard  Randolph's  will. 

To  all  whom  it  may  Concern  :  I,  Richard  Randolph,  jun'r  of  Bozarre,  in 
the  County  of  Cumberland,  of  sound  mind  and  memory,  do  make  this 
writing — written  with  my  own  hand  and  subscribed  with  my  name,  this 
eighteenth  day  of  February  in  the  twentieth  year  of  the  American  inde- 
pendence, to  be  my  last  will  and  testament,  in  form  and  substance  as  fol- 

In  the  first  place,  to  make  retribution,  as  far  as  I  am  able,  to  an 
unfortunate  race  of  bondmen,  over  whom  my  ancestors  have  usurped  and 
exercised  the  most  lawless  and  monstrous  tyranny,  and  in  whom  my 
countrymen  by  their  iniquitous  laws,  in  contradiction  of  their  own  declara- 
tion of  rights,  and  in  violation  of  every  sound  law  of  nature,  of  the  inherent, 
inalienable  and  imprescriptible  rights  of  man ;  and  of  every  moral  and 
political  honesty,  have  vested  me  with  absolute  property.  To  express  my 
abhorrence  of  the  theory  as  well  as  infamous  practice  of  usurping  the 
rights  of  our  fellow  creatures  equally  entitled  with  ourselves  to  the  enjoy- 
ment of  liberty  and  happiness.  To  exculpate  myself  to  those  who  may 
perchance  to  think  or  hear  of  me  after  death  from  the  black  crime,  which 
might  otherwise  be  imputed  to  me,  of  voluntarily  holding  the  above- 
mentioned  miserable  beings  in  the  same  state  of  abject  slavery  in  which  I 
found  them  on  receiving  my  patrimony  at  lawful  age.  To  "impress  my 
children  with  just  horror  at  a  crime  so  enormous  and  indelible.  To  con- 
jure them  in  the  last  words  of  a  fond  father  never  to  participate  in  it  in 
any— the  remotest  degree,  however  sanctioned  by  laws  (framed  by  the 
tyrants  themselves  who  oppress  them),  or  supported  by  false  reasoning 
used  always  to  veil  the  sordid  views  of  avarice  and  the  lust  of  power.  To 
declare  to  them  and  to  the  world  that  nothing  but  uncontrollable  necessity 
— forced  on  me  by  my  father,  who  wrongfully  bound  over  men  to  satisfy 
the  rapacious  creditors  of  a  brother— who  for  this  purpose,  which  he  falsely 
believed  to  be  generous,  mortgaged  all  his  slaves  to  British  harpies,  for 
money  to  -ratify  pride  and  pamper  sensuality ;  by  which  mortgage  the 
said  slaves  being  bound,  I  could  not  exercise  the  right  of  ownership  neces- 
sary to  their  emancipation;  and  being  obliged  to  keep  them  on  my  land 
was  driven  reluctantly  to  violate  them  in  a  great  degree  (though  I  trust 
far  less  than  others  have  done)  in  order  to  maintain  them  ;  that  nothing, 
1  say,  short  of  this  necessity  should  have  forced  me  to  an  act  which  my, 
soul  abhors.  For  the  aforesaid  purposes,  and  with  an  indignation  too 
great  for  utterance  at  the  tyrants  of  the  earth— from  the  throned  despot 
of  a  whole  nation  to  the  most  despicable  but  not  less  infamous  petty  tor- 
mentor of  a  single  wretched  slave,  whose  torture  constitutes  his  wealth  and 
enjoyment.  I  do  truly  declare  that  it  is  my  will  and  desire,  nay,  most 
anxious  wish,  that  my  negroes,  all  of  them,  be  liberated,  and  1  do  declare 
them,  by  this  writing,  free  and  emancipated  to  all  intents  and  purposes 
whatsoever  :  fully  and  freely  exonerated  from  all  further  service  to  my 
heirs,  executors  or  assigns,  and  altogether  as  free  as  the  illiberal  laws  will 
permit  them  to  he.  I  mean  herein  to  include  all  and  every  slave  of  which 
I  die  possessed  or  to  which  I  have  any  claim  by  inheritance  or  otherwise. 
I  thus  yield  them  up  their  liberty  basely  wrested  from  them  by  my  fore- 


fathers  and  beg,  humbly  beg,  their  forgiveness  for  the  manifold  injuries  I 
have  too  often  inhumanly, unjustly  and  mercilessly  inflicted  on  them.  And 
I  do  further  declare  that  it  is  my  will,  that  if  I  shall-  be  so  unfortunate  as 
to  die  possessed  of  any  slaves  (which  I  will  not  do  if  I  can  ever  be  enabled 
to  emancipate  them  legally)  and  the  'said  slaves  shall  be  liable  for  my 
father's  debts  and  sold  for  them ;  that  in  that  case  five  hundred  pounds 
be  raised  from  my  other  estate,  real  or  personal,  as  my  wife  shall  think 
best,  and  in  any  manner  she  may  choose  and  applied  to  the  purchase  at 
such  sale  of  such  of  the  said  miserable  slaves  as  have  been  most  worthy  ; 
to  be  judged  of  by  my  said  wife,  which  said  slaves  I  do  hereby  declare 
free  as  soon  as  they  are  purchased  to  all  intents  and  purposes  whatsoever ; 
and  in  case  I  emancipate  the  said  slaves  (which  I  shall  surely  do  the  first 
moment  possible)  I  do  devise,  give  and  bequeath  to  them  the  said  slaves, 
four  hundred  acres  of  my  land,  to  be  laid  off  as  my  wife  shall  direct,  and 
to  be  given  to  the  heads  of  families  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  the 
children  and  the  merits  of  the  parties,  as  my  said  wife  shall  judge  for  the 
best.  The  laud  to  be  laid  off  where  and  how  my  said  wife  shall  direct, 
and  to  be  held  by  the  said  slaves  when  allotted  to  them  in  fee.  I  do  like- 
wise coujure  my  said  wife  to  lend  every  assistance  to  the  said  slaves  thro' 
life  in  her«power  ;  and  to  rear  our  children  up  to  the  same  practice  and 
leave  it  on  them  as  her  latest  injunction — and  to  do  everything  directed 
above  relative  to  the  said  slaves. 

I  now  proceed  to  direct  the  manner  in  which  my  other  property  is  to  be 
disposed  of  (having  fulfilled  this  first  and  greatest  duty  and  most  anxious 
and  zealous  wish  to  befriend  the  miserable  and  persecuted  of  whatsoever 
nation,  color  or  degree),  by  my  will  as  here  seen  written  on  this  and  another 
sheet  of  paper,  each  signed  by  my  own  hand  and  with  my  own  name  and 
connected  together  by  wafers. 

R'd  Randolph,  Jun'r. 

In  the  second  place,  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  wife,  Judith  Randolph 
all  my  personal  estate  remaining  of  whatsoever  nature  animate,  inanimate 
in  possession  or  in  action,  claimed  or  to  be  claimed,  right  or  title  whatso- 
ever to  her  sole  use  and  disposal  forever  that  [torn  out]  exclusive  of 
slaves.  I  likewise  give,  devise  and  bequeath  to  my  said  wife  all  my  real 
estate  whatsoever  of  which  I  die  possessed  and  also  all  to  which  I  have 
any  claim  or  title  whatsoever  to  her  and  to  her  heirs,  in  full  confidence 
that  she  will  do  the  most  ample  justice  to  our  children  by  making  them 
independent  as  soon  as  they  are  of  age — if  she  remains  single — or  by 
securing  them  a  comfortable  support  by  settlement  on  them  before  any 
marriage  into  which  she  may  hereafter  resolve  to  enter  (which  if  she  do 
marry  will  be  the  only  certain  mode  of  providing  for  them)  and  by 
educating  them  as  well  as  her  fortune  will  enable  her.  The  only  anxiety 
I  feel  on  their  account  arises  from  a  fear  of  her  maternal  tenderness  lead- 
ing her  to  too  great  indulgence  of  them,  against  which  I  beg  leave  thus  to 
caution  her.  I  now  consign  them  to  her  affectionate  love,  desiring  that 
they  be  educated  in  some  profession — or  trade  if  they  be  incapable  of  a 
liberal  profession,  and  that  they  be  instructed  in  virtue  and  in  the  most 


zealous  principles  of  liberty  and  manly  independence.  I  dedicate  them  to 
that  virtue  and  that  liberty  which  I  trust  will  protect  their  infancy  and  of 
which  I  conjure  them  to  be  the  indefatigable  and  incorruptible  supporters 
through  life.  I  request  my  wife  frequently  to  read  this  my  will  to  my 
tenderly  beloved  children,  that  they  may  know  something  of  their  father's 
heart  when  they  have  forgotten  his  person.  Let  them  be  virtuous  and  free 
— the  rest  is  vain. 

Finally,  I  entreat  my  wife  to  consider  the  above  confidence  as  the  strong- 
est possible  proof  of  the  estimation  and  ardent  love  which  I  have  always 
uniformly  felt  for  her  and  which  must  be  the  latest  impulse  of  my  heart. 

I  hereby  appoint  my  said  wife  sole  executrix  of  this  my  last  will  and 
testament,  but  in  case  I  should  be  so  unfortunate  as  to  be  left  by  her 
single  and  die  without  any  other  will  than  this  executed  by  me,  I  appoint 
in  that  case  as  my  executors  (requesting  their  attention  to  my  injunction 
on  my  wife  above  mentioned,  relying  on  them  to  execute  them  and  the 
directions  in  my  said  will  as  she  will  otherwise  do)  to-wit,  the  following 
most  esteemed  friends:  my  father-in-law,  S.  George  Tucker,  my  brother, 
John  Randolph,  my  friends,  Ryland  Randolph,  Brett  Randolph,  Creed 
Taylor,  John  Thompson,  Alexander  Campbell,  Daniel  Call,  and  the  most 
virtuous  and  incorruptible  of  mankind  and  next  to  my  father-in-law — my 
greatest  benefactor,  George*  Wythe,  Chancellor  of  Virginia — the  brightest 
ornament  of  human  nature.  1  rely  on  the  aforementioned  virtuous  friends 
for  the  punctual  execution  of  my  will,  the  care  and  guardianship  of  my 
children,  in  case  of  the  death  of  my  wife  either  before  or  after  me  (to 
whom  if  she  live  I  have  entrusted  them  solely  )  ;  and  to  those  of  them  most 
nearly  connected  with  me  by  friendship  I  look  for  assistance  of  my  family 
after  my  death  in  all  cases  of  difficulty.  If  any  among  them  do  not 
choose  to  undertake  the  task  imposed  on  them  by  me,  I  beg  them  not  to 
do  so  from  motives  of  generosity  or  delicacy ;  and  to  excuse  the  liberty 
which  (it  may  appear  to  some  of  them  least  intimately  acquainted  with 
me)  I  have  taken  in  thus  calling  on  them. 

In  witness  of  the  above  directions,  which  I  again  declare  to  be  my  will 
and  testament,  drawn  by  me  from  calm  reflections,  I  have  hereunto  sub- 
scribed my  name  and  affixed  my  seal  the  day  and  year  aforesaid. 

R'd  Randolph,  Jun'r.,  [seal] 
Signed  and  sealed  in  the  presence 

of  the    following   persons  and 

declared  to  be  the  last  will  of 

the  above  named  Richard  Ran- 
dolph, junr. 

R v land  Randolph. 

At  a  District  Court,  held  at  Prince  Edward  Court-house,  April  8th, 

This  last  will  and  testament  of  Richard  Randolph  jun'r,  deceased,  wras 
presented  in  court  by  Judith  Randolph,  executrix  therein  named,  there 
being  but  one  witness  to  said  will,  and  he  not  being  in  court,  Miller  Wood- 
son and  Peter  Johnson  being  sworn,  severally  deposed  that  they  are  well 


acquainted  with  the  testator's  handwriting,  and  verily  believe  that  the 
said  will  and  the  name  thereto  subscribed  are  all  of  the  testator's  proper 
handwriting.  Whereupon  the  said  will  is  ordered  to  be  recorded.  And 
on  motion  of  the  executrix,  therein  named,  who  gave  bond  with  John 
Randolph,  Brett  Randolph,  and  Creed  Taylor,  her  securities,  in  the  penalty 
of  twelve  thousand  pounds  and  took  the  oath  required  by  law,  certificate 
for  obtaining  a  probate  thereof  in  due  form  is  granted  her. 


F.  W  ATKINS,  C.  D.  C. 
A  Copy — Teste 

C'lk  Prince  Edward  Circ  Sup'r  Court. 

Enon  Valley,  Pa.,  8  April,  1875. 
To  "VVm.  Still,  Esq.,  Chairman: — 

I  have  received  your  invitation  to  be  present  at  the  Centennial  Anni- 
versary of  "The  Pennsylvania  Society  for  promoting  Jthe  abolition  of 
slavery;  and  for  the  relief  of  Free  Negroes,  &c.'' 

As  time  is  making  such  fast  inroads  upon  the  ranks  of  the  Abolitionists 
it  would  indeed  be  pleasant  to  look  once  more  injfco  each  other's  faces  before 
we  die.  I  have  an  errand  to  Philadelphia  some  time  the  coming  Summer, 
and  have  been  trying,  since  the  receipt  of  your  letter,  to  arrange  matters 
so  they  would  allow  me  to  attend  the  contemplated  meeting.  But  it  is 
impossible  to  do  so,  and  instead  of  going  in  person,  I  must  send  this  letter 
of  excuae. 

It  gives  me  great  pleasure  to  learn,  what  indeed  I  might  have  sus- 
pected, that  the  Society,  now  that  slavery  is  passed  away,  devote  their 
funds  to  sustaining  schools  of  instruction  among  the  Freedmen.  I  regard 
education  as  the  sovereign  panacea  for  all  the  troubles  of  the  South  ;  and 
for  the  colored  man  his  only  salvation,  As  in  Natural  History  we  find 
that  the  grey  and  black  squirrels  disappear  in  our  forests  when  the  red 
squirrel  predominates ;  and  as  the  brown  rat  takes  his  departure  when  the 
Norway  rat  makes  his  appearance;  so,  the  other  races  of  mankind  yield 
to  the  superior  power  and  sagacity  of  the  Anglo  Saxon. 

There  is  but  one  exception  to  this  rule.  The  Negro  holds  his  own  with 
our  proud  race,  and  can  live  and  thrive  with  us — provided  he  is  educated. 
The  next  census  will  show,  I  apprehend,  that  under  all  the  trials  of  the 
transition  state  from  slavery  to  freedom  he  has  not  retrograded  in  any  re- 
spect, but  has  positively  improved  in  soul,  body,  and  estate. 

I  have  had  from  childhood  a  warm  attachment  to  the  colored  people ; 
and  were  I  possessed  of  millions  I  would  be  glad  to  appropriate  them  to 
the  establishment  of  the  best  schools  and  libraries  among  them  every 
where,  believing  that  education  and  refinement,  by  making  them  rmlly 
equal  with  the  whites,  would  supercede  the  necessity  for  Civil  Rights 
Bdls,  and  do  more  for  them  than  anything  else. 

Hoping  you  will  have  a  good  time  at  the  reunion,  and  regretting  sin- 
cerely that  I  cannot  be  there,  I  remain,  with  much  respect,  yours, 

A.  B.  Bradford. 


9  0ZL6C8  UOO